January 20, 2022

Portugal (Portuguese [puɾtuˈɡaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpublikɐ puɾtuɡezɐ]), is a country located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country in Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south, and Spain to the north and east. The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean are also part of Portugal. The land within the borders of present-day Portugal has been continuously inhabited since prehistoric times. In the year 29 BC the country was inhabited by the Galicians and Lusitans when it was incorporated into the Roman Empire as the Province of Lusitania and part of the Province of Galicia. Roman settlers strongly influenced Portuguese culture, especially the Portuguese language, which is mostly derived from Latin. In the fifth century, after the fall of the Roman Empire, the region was subject to several Germanic peoples, most notably the Suevi and the Visigoths. In the early eighth century, the Muslims conquered these Germanic kingdoms and took control of most of the Iberian Peninsula. During the fall of Andalusia, Portugal was settled as part of the Kingdom of Galicia. The kingdom's founding was recognized in 1143 and its borders stabilized by 1249, thus claiming to be the oldest European nation-state. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as a result of maritime exploration, Portugal expanded to become a global empire whose possessions included lands in Africa, Asia and South America, and became a major global power economically, politically and militarily. The Portuguese Empire was the world's first and longest-lived empire. In 1580, after the succession crisis, it united with Spain for a period known as the Iberian Union, but in 1640 it gained its full independence during the Portuguese Restoration War, which led to the creation of a new dynasty and a return to the previous separation between the two empires. The Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the Spanish and French invasions, which followed Portugal's loss of its largest colony, Brazil, all led to a decline in political stability and economic growth as well as the decline of Portugal's international standing as a world power during the nineteenth century. After the overthrow of the monarchy in 1910, an unstable democratic republic emerged, replaced by the Estado Novo dictatorship. After the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974, the country restored democracy, ceded the remaining overseas provinces (most notably Angola, Mozambique, and Portuguese Guinea in Africa) and handed Macau over to China in 1999. Portugal is one of the developed countries

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