United Arab Republic
The United Arab Republic is the official name of the political entity formed following the union between the republics of Egypt and Syria. The union was announced on February 22, 1958 with the signing of the Charter of the United Republic by the Syrian presidents Shukri al-Quwatli and the Egyptian Gamal Abdel Nasser. Abdel Nasser was elected president and Cairo the capital of the new republic. In 1960, the parliaments of the two countries were unified in the National Assembly in Cairo and the regional ministries were abolished in favor of a unified ministry in Cairo as well. Unity was ended by a military coup in Damascus on September 28, 1961, and Syria announced the establishment of the Syrian Arab Republic, while Egypt retained the name of the United Arab Republic until 1971 when it was called by its current name the Arab Republic of Egypt.
Some considered that the Egyptian-Syrian unity, which was announced on February 22, 1958, was the result of the permanent demand of a group of Syrian officers, at a time when the leaders of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party had campaigned for union with Egypt. According to journalist Patrick Seale, "Gamal Abdel Nasser was not enthusiastic about an organic union with Syria, and he did not aspire to manage Syria's internal affairs or inherit its problems. To control Syria’s foreign policy with the aim of crowding out its enemies from the West and the Arabs.This was a completely different idea from the unitary Baath program that called for destroying the borders, but it could not take anything and leave nothing, and thus the Syrians pushed him to agree to the establishment of the United Arab Republic.” George Jabbour: “Since the middle of 1954, and especially since the beginning of 1955, the masses in Syria have shown a special interest in the Egyptian revolution: the Canal Agreement, the resistance of alliances, the crystallization of the Arab idea among the leaders of the Egyptian revolution, the Zionist pressure on Egypt represented in the campaign against Gaza at the beginning of In 1955, the Bandung Conference, the arms deal, clarifies the social trend of the revolution and its serious fight against feudalism... All of this earned the revolution and its leader great respect in the progressive and democratic circles in the Syrian Arab region. If we add to all that the weight that Egypt represents in The Arab World: Humanly, civilly and geographically in particular, it became clear to us that the Nasserist leadership’s polarization of the Arab masses in the second half of the fifties was inevitable.” A Syrian military delegation came to Cairo secretly without the knowledge of the Syrian government, calling for immediate unity. Abdel Nasser and Abdel Hakim Amer negotiated throughout the days of January 13-16, and the mission culminated in a general agreement on unity. To complete the mission, the Minister of Defense arrived