Wildlife in the Levant


July 5, 2022

Wildlife in the Levant refers to all types of wild plants and animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fresh and salt water fish, in addition to the invertebrates, inhabiting the region known historically as Levant, the Levant, or Greater Syria, which today includes the following countries: Jordan, Palestine and Syria (including It includes the Alexandretta Brigade), Lebanon and Israel, in addition to a section of southeastern Turkey, which is the section known as the northern Syrian regions, and some add to it Cyprus and a section of Sinai. Levantine wildlife is characterized by its great diversity, due to the climatic diversity in the region and its location in the middle of the three continents of the ancient world: Asia, Africa and Europe, which made it a gateway for the migration of many types from north to south and vice versa, and gave it different and sometimes contradictory climatic patterns, which It enabled a great variety of diverse creatures to colonize. Many types of huge animals have disappeared in the Levant, or in some parts of the Levant without the other, due to the destruction of natural habitats for the purpose of settlement and human exploitation, or because of over-hunting since antiquity. Since the late twentieth century, several nature reserves have been established throughout the Levant, with local and international efforts. Others, to preserve the remaining animal species and unique natural habitats, and some of those reserves have achieved great success in preserving wildlife and their habitats.

The importance of the Levant in biodiversity and the emergence of agriculture

The Levant and Iraq (the Fertile Crescent) are considered the cradle for the emergence of a number of plants that were domesticated and became important agricultural crops, such as wheat (two types), barley, lentils, chickpeas, corn, peas and flax, and these eight are called the foundation crops of civilization. In addition, fruitful trees such as almonds, olives, figs, medicinal and aromatic plants and ornamental plants arose in this region. According to the botanist George Post, the importance of the Levant is not equal to any spot on the face of the earth, not only because of the important human events that have passed through it, but also because of its unique geological structure and the great diversity of its terrain, climate, and distinguished fauna and flora.

Geographical location and terrain

The Levant occupies the eastern coast of the Mediterranean and extends eastward to the borders of Mesopotamia. The Levant extends from the Taurus mountain range in the north to the Sinai Peninsula in the south. This land is characterized by two parallel mountain ranges (western and eastern) that split from north to south parallel to the coastline. The western chain begins