Khedive Tawfiq


January 20, 2022

Khedive Tawfiq (November 15, 1852 - January 7, 1892), whose name is Muhammad Tawfiq Pasha, the sixth ruler of Egypt from the Alawite dynasty. He is the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan during the years 1879-1892 AD.


He is Muhammad Tawfiq bin Ismail bin Ibrahim Pasha bin Muhammad Ali Pasha, and he is the eldest son of Khedive Ismail from his offspring Shafak Nur Hanim, who was not among his four wives, and this may be the reason why he was not sent with the rest of his children to study in Europe, as this explains the bad relationship between him and His father, which was manifested after the removal of Ismail in his disassociation from him and the exclusion of all his men.

His reign

His reign witnessed the Urabi Revolution, and then the British occupation, which was supported by him. In 1884 Khartoum fell to the Mahdist revolution and the English ruler of Sudan, Charles George Gordon, was killed. And issued May 1, 1883 the regular law, according to which the Council of Laws was formed.

His political life and his reign

His Presidency of the First Ministry

He formed his first ministry during the reign of his father (March 10, 1879 - April 7, 1879), and it included two European ministers. It did not last long, as the dispute raged between it and the Shura Council of Representatives, and it was targeted by an opposition movement that ended in its downfall and the formation of Muhammad Sharif's first ministry.

His government

Taking over

He took power on June 26, 1879, after the English and the French forced his father, Khedive Ismail, to leave his position, when he tried to make up for what he had missed. He left his position to his eldest son, Tawfiq. After assuming power, Sharif's first principality (April 7, 1879 - July 5, 1879) resigned, but the Khedive asked him to compose a new one, so he composed it on July 5, 1879. The new one included the existence of a House of Representatives, which would have oversight over the administration of the state. The Khedive refused to reconcile that, which led to the resignation of Sharif Pasha.

Presiding over the second ministry

He headed his second cabinet during his reign (August 18, 1879 - September 21, 1879), and it did not last long due to European intervention.

His government

During his reign, Egypt's share in the profits of the Suez Canal (15%) was sold, which had been mortgaged to some French financiers since the era of Ismail, and thus Egypt lost what remained of the financial benefit of the canal. Khedive Tawfiq tried to appease the Europeans. He denied political reformer Gamal al-Din al-Afghani, and imposed many financial restrictions demanded by Egypt's creditors, under the liquidation law issued in 1880, which allocated more than half of Egypt's revenues to the public debt, thus enabling foreigners to control

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