January 20, 2022

Sudan (officially: the Republic of Sudan) is an Arab country located in northeastern Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast. Sudan has a population of about 43 million (2018 estimate) and an area of ​​1,886,068 square kilometers (728,215 square miles), making it the third largest country by area in Africa and in the Arab world. Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world by area before the secession of South Sudan in 2011. The Nile River divides the territory of Sudan into eastern and western halves. The capital, Khartoum, is located at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles, the two main tributaries of the Nile. Sudan is in the middle of the Nile Valley Basin. The history of the region that makes up the present Sudan extends back to ancient times, when it witnessed the Kerma civilization (BC. 2500 BC - 1500 BC), then it became under the control of the modern Egyptian kingdom for about five centuries, and this was followed by the rise of the Kingdom of Kush ( BC..785 BC - AD 350), which in turn dominated Egypt for nearly a century. After the fall of Kush, the Nubians built three Christian kingdoms, Nobatia, Makuria and Alwa, the last two kingdoms lasting until 1500. Between the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, most of Sudan was settled by Arab Bedouins. From the 16th and 19th centuries, the Sennar Sultanate controlled central and eastern Sudan, while the Darfur Sultanate ruled the west and the Ottomans ruled the far north. This period witnessed extensive Islamization and Arabization. From 1820 to 1874 the whole of Sudan was conquered by the Alawi dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885, the rule of the Alawite dynasty was met with a successful revolution led by Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi, the self-proclaimed Mahdi, which led to the establishment of the Mahdist state. This country was eventually destroyed in 1898 by the British, who then ruled Sudan with Egypt. The twentieth century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism, and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was declared on January 1, 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under the rule of Jaafar al-Numeiri, Sudan introduced Islamic law to the judiciary in 1983. This exacerbated the rift between the Islamic north - the seat of government - and the Christians and others in the south. Differences in language, religion and political authority caused a civil war between government forces, heavily influenced by the National Islamic Front, and southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army, and led

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