May 19, 2022

Iraq officially the Republic of Iraq (Kurdish: Kۆmary Iraq, Syriac: ܩܘܛܢܝܘܬܐ ܕܥܝܪܐܩ) is an Arab country, and is a federal parliamentary republic according to the constitution of Iraq, and it consists of eighteen governorates officially, and nineteen de facto governorates (the nineteenth is Halabja governorate), its capital is Baghdad . It is located in Western Asia overlooking the Arabian Gulf. It is bordered to the south by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, to the north by Turkey, to the west by Syria and Jordan, and to the east by Iran. It is a founding member of the League of Arab States, the Organization of the Islamic Conference and OPEC. Most of the country’s lands are currently located in the region of Mesopotamia, and the region included the first civilizational centers in the world that were located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which is the Sumer civilization. Sumerian antiquities were also found in the present state of Kuwait, Bahrain and Al-Ahwaz in Iran. Mesopotamia had openness and contact with the ancient civilizations of Egypt and India. Many countries and civilizations have succeeded in ruling Iraq, the most important of which are the Sumerian, Neo-Babylonian, Assyrian, Medea, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman, Sassanian, Manathrian, Caliphate, Umayyad, Abbasid, Mughal, Safavid, Afsharian, and Ottoman states. Then the British Mandate, then the Kingdom of Iraq, then the First Republic, then the Republic under the rule of the Baath Party, then the Orha Authority (Reconstruction of Iraq), then the Coalition Provisional Authority, then the Iraqi Interim Government, then the Iraqi Transitional Government, then the Federal Parliamentary Republic in Iraq. The population of the Republic of Iraq in 2020 was estimated at about 40 million and 150 thousand people, distributed by (50.50%) for men and (49.5%) for women. The percentage of Arabs from 75% to 80% of the Iraqi people, the Kurds to 15% of the people, and the remaining (5%-10%) are Assyrians/Syriacs/Kandans, Turkmen and other minorities, which are Sabean Mandaeans, Armenians, Circassians, and Iranians. The Shabak, the Yazidis, and the Kawliya, and the religion of the majority of the population of Iraq is Islam, and their percentage reaches 95% of the population. There is a debate about the proportion of Shiites and Sunnis in the country, and both sects claim that they constitute the numerical majority, without a general census of the population under international supervision, and international bodies confirm that their weight is close and balanced. Religious minorities amount to 5% of the population, the majority of whom are Chaldean Christians. There are other religions such as Mandaean, Wales.