The golden age of Islam
The description of the golden age of Islam is used to describe a historical stage in which the Islamic civilization was advanced scientifically and culturally, and it extends from the middle of the eighth century until the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries AD. During this period, the engineers, scholars, and merchants of the Islamic world made a significant contribution to the fields of art, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, science, technology and astronomy, by maintaining and building on previous contributions and by adding many of their inventions and innovations. Muslim philosophers, poets, artists, scholars and princes created a unique culture that in turn influenced societies on all continents. It is traditionally said that the period ended with the collapse of the Abbasid Caliphate due to the Mongol invasions and the siege of Baghdad in 1258. Few scholars date the end of the Golden Age around 1350 coinciding with the Timurid Renaissance. While many modern historians and scholars place the end of the Islamic Golden Age as late as the end of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries coinciding with the age of the gunpowder empires.
Governance and Administration Systems
The political system in the Islamic state is represented in many systems of governance and administration.
After the death of the Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace, and to resolve the dispute between the Ansar and the Muhajirun, and the dispute between the tribes, the senior Companions agreed that the Prophet should have a successor.
The Caliphate: It is a general leadership in the religion and the world, and some may call it the Imamate or the state, and that is why the Companions succeeded him, and after the death of the Companions, the Messenger was succeeded by the children of the Companions and the companions of his tribe, and several countries took over the rule. Ibn Affan and Ali Ibn Abi Talib, then the system of succession was transformed into succession by Muawiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan, founder of the Umayyad state, and the system of succession continued during the era of the Umayyad and Abbasid states.
The ministry is the caliph’s assistant in matters of governance and was known in terms of meaning only during the era of the Prophet Muhammad, when he used to consult his companions in the affairs of the state and assign them some tasks to perform on his behalf. Ibn Affan and Ali Ibn Abi Talib in matters of governance and state administration. During the Umayyad dynasty, advisors and assistants to the caliphs continued to be taken, and the ministry continued in terms of meaning only, but the situation changed during the Abbasid state, so the ministry knew the word and meaning, and it became an official function.
The emirate appeared since then