India

Article

November 30, 2021

India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially: Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), A country in South Asia. India is the second most populous country, the seventh largest by area, and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south, the Arabian Sea to the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. It shares a land border with Pakistan in the west; China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north; Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. India is located near Sri Lanka and the Maldives in the Indian Ocean. Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Modern humans arrived in the Indian subcontinent from Africa approximately 55 thousand years ago. Their long occupation, initially with various forms of isolation as hunters, made the region very diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Sedentary life appeared in the Indian subcontinent in the western fringes of the Indus River basin 9,000 years ago, and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium BC. By 1200 BC, an ancient form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had spread to India from the northwest, beginning as the language of the Rigveda, and marking the dawning of Hinduism in India. The Dravidian languages ​​in India have replaced the northern and western regions. Caste and caste exclusion emerged within Hinduism by 400 BC, and Buddhism and Jainism emerged, declaring social systems unrelated to heredity. Early political reinforcements gave rise to the Mauryan Empire and the loose Gupta Empire centered in the Ganges basin. Their collective era was full of creativity on a large scale, but also marked by the deterioration of the status of women, and the incorporation of the prohibition against prejudice into an organized belief system. In southern India, the Middle Kingdoms exported manuscripts in Dravidian languages ​​and religious cultures to the kingdoms of Southeast Asia. By the early Middle Ages, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Islam and Judaism had taken root in the southern and western coasts of India. Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently overran the northern plains of India, eventually establishing the Delhi Sultanate, and drawing northern India into the global networks of medieval Islam. In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara Empire established a long-standing complex Hindu culture in southern India. In Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting the institutional religion. The Mughal Empire, in 1526, imposed two centuries of relative peace, leaving a legacy of luminous architecture. NS

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