Plasma (physics)

Article

August 19, 2022

Plasma or cytoplasm is a distinct state of matter that can be described as an ionized gas in which the electrons are free and not bound to an atom or molecule. If matter exists in nature in three states: solid, liquid and gas, then it is possible to classify plasma as the fourth state in which matter can exist. In contrast to the gases, the plasma characteristics own. When heat is shed or subjected to a high electromagnetic field such as a laser or a microwave wave, the electron is ejected away from the nucleus, resulting in freer positive and negative charges called ions, accompanied by the disintegration of molecular bonds if they exist. The strong presence of these charge carriers makes it a conductor of electricity and is strongly affected by the electromagnetic field. Plasma has no definite shape or volume, it takes the form of a neutral (moderate) gas similar to clouds. It may be affected by the magnetic field and have a structure, such as filaments, bundles, or a double layer. It may contain dust and particles (called dusty plasma).

Plasma history

In 1879 the English scientist, Sir William Crookes, discovered plasma through a Crookes tube and called it "radioactive matter". Then the British scientist Joseph Thomson discovered the properties and nature of plasma in 1897, and the credit for naming the plasma to the scientist Irving Langmuir in 1928, because he believed that it most likely resembles blood plasma. Langmuir wrote:

Plasma Generals

Plasma constitutes 99% of the cosmic matter between stars and galaxies in terms of mass and volume, and some planets make up most of their matter. Famous plasma scientist Hans Alfen noted that small amounts of grains behave through electric charges as electrolytes (ions) and as a form of plasma (dusty plasma).

Properties and parameters of plasma

Definition of plasma

Describing plasma as a neutral medium of negative and positively charged particles is a weak and inaccurate description because the definition of plasma must include three criteria, which gives more accuracy, and these criteria are: 1. Plasma convergence: Charged particles should be so close that each particle affects many nearby particles rather than just interacting with the closest (collective influence is the hallmark of a plasma). Plasma convergence has a stronger effect the more electrons within the acting field (called a Debye sphere) have a radius of larger particles called the Debye length. The average number of particles in a Debye domain is a value or estimate