Turkey

Article

January 20, 2022

Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), the official name of the Turkish Republic (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country located mostly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, and a smaller part on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Eastern Thrace, the European part of Turkey, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of ​​Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles. Istanbul, which straddles Europe and Asia, is the largest city in the country, while Ankara is the capital. Turkey is bordered to the northwest by Greece and Bulgaria. To the north is the Black Sea; To the northeast, Georgia; and to the east by Armenia, surrounded by Azerbaijani Nakhchivan and Iran; and from the southeast of Iraq; From the south, Syria and the Mediterranean Sea; And overlooks the west on the Aegean Sea. Roughly 70 to 80 percent of the country's citizens identify themselves as Turkish, while Kurds are the largest minority, representing 15 to 20 percent of the population. In different periods of its history, the region that makes up Turkey has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the peoples of Anatolia, Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians, and Armenians. Hellenization began during the era of Alexander the Great and continued until the Byzantine era. The Seljuk Turks began to migrate to the region in the eleventh century, and their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolized the founding of Turkey for many Turkish nationalists. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late thirteenth century, the Ottomans began to unify the principalities and conquer the Balkans. The Turkification of Anatolia increased during the Ottoman period. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued during the reign of Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire included much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa and became a global power. From the late eighteenth century onward, the empire's power declined with the gradual loss of territory and wars. In an attempt to solidify the weak social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmud II began a period of modernization in the early nineteenth century, undertaking reforms in all areas of the state including the army and the bureaucracy, along with the emancipation of all slaves. The coup of 1913 placed the country under the control of the three pashas, ​​who were Largely responsible for the empire's entry into World War I in 1914. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocide against its Armenian subjects

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