January 24, 2022

Tunisia (officially: the Tunisian Republic), is a country in the far north of Africa. It is part of the Maghreb region, bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. It covers 163,610 square kilometers (63,170 sq mi), and has a population of 11 million. It contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains and the northern reaches of the Sahara, with much of its remaining arable land. Its 1,300 km (810 mi) coastline includes the African link between the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin. Tunisia is home to the northernmost point in North Africa, Ras Angela. Its capital and largest city is Tunis, located on the northeastern coast, for which the country is named. Since ancient times, Tunisia has been inhabited by Berbers. The Phoenicians began arriving in the 12th century BC and established several settlements, with Carthage appearing by the 7th century BC. A major trading empire and military rival to the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC and occupied Tunisia in the next 800 years, introducing Christianity and leaving behind architectural legacies such as the El Jem Palace. After several attempts beginning in 647 AD, the Muslims conquered all of Tunisia by 697, bringing Islamic religion and Arab culture to the local population. The Ottoman Empire imposed its control in 1574 and controlled for more than 300 years, until the French invaded Tunisia in 1881. Tunisia gained its independence under the leadership of Habib Bourguiba, who proclaimed the Tunisian Republic on July 25, 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian revolution, triggered by a lack of freedom and democracy under President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's 23-year rule, toppled his regime and spurred the Arab Spring across the region. Shortly after the National Constituent Assembly elections were held, the country voted again for Parliament on October 26, 2014 and for the President on November 23, 2014. Tunisia remains a centralized country with a semi-presidential system and representative democracy. It is the only country in North Africa classified as "free" according to Freedom House, and it is considered the only fully democratic country in the Arab world in the Democracy Index according to the Economic Intelligence Unit. It is one of the few countries in Africa to rank high on the Human Development Index, with one of the highest per capita incomes on the continent. Tunisia is well integrated into the international community. It is a member of the United Nations, the International Organization of Francophones, University of

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