Artsakh Republic (Armenian: Արցախի Հանրապետություն) or Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (Azerbaijani: Qondarma Dağlıq Qarabağ Respublikası) (Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի Հանրապետություն); It is an unrecognized republic, located in the Karabakh Highlands region in the southern Caucasus, about 170 miles from the Azerbaijani capital Baku, and close to the Armenian border. The Karabakh Highlands are a landlocked state, bordered to the north and east by Azerbaijan, to the west by Armenia, and to the south by Iran. In 2006 the constitution of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic was ratified. The position of President of the Republic is now held by Arik Harutyunyan.
The Karabakh Highlands Republic is located in the southeastern part of the Lesser Caucasus. The republic is dominated by a mountainous character, embracing the eastern part of the Karabakh plateau from the west and going to the south and east, then joining with the Artsakh Valley, which constitutes a large part of the lowlands.
The majority in this region are Armenians, and this majority made the Karabakh region vulnerable to the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan, which are also Soviet republics, and after independence in both republics, they started a war in the region known as the Karabakh Highlands War, which lasted from 1988 to 1994.
On December 10, 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the region began to ask for independence from Azerbaijan, and accession to Armenia, but this did not materialize; But independence was achieved only as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was not recognized by any state or organization, including Armenia.
The word Nagorno-Karabakh is a Russian word that means heights and at the same time it means mountains, and the word Karabakh means black garden, which means that Nagorno-Karabakh is a translation of the heights of the Black Garden. The population of the Republic, which has an Armenian majority, calls the region “Artsakh”, the origin of the word is Armenian, and it is composed of two syllables, the first “R” in relation to “Ara” the sun god of the ancient Armenians, and “Tsakh” which means vine or forest. Thus, the word "Artsakh" means the forest or vine of the god "Ara". As for the Azhar, they know it as "Yukhari Karabakh", or "Upper Karabakh" in the literal sense.
The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic follows the presidential system. In other words, the executive authority rests primarily with the president. The executive authority is completely independent of the legislative authority, and it does not fall under its accountability and cannot dissolve it. The president is elected for a term of 5 years by the people. The Republic is characterized by the existence of a multi-party system, the National Assembly (Parliament) has 33 members, and 16 other members are elected for five-year terms.