A landlocked country is a sovereign country that is entirely surrounded by land, or whose only coast lies on closed seas. There are currently 49 landlocked countries, of which 5 are partially recognized. All of these countries are located within Afro-Eurasia except for two countries, Bolivia and Paraguay, which are located in South America.
As a rule, the fact that a country is landlocked creates a political and economic impediment to the inaccessibility of international waters. For this reason, states both large and small throughout history have sought access to open waters, even at the cost of wealth, bloodshed, or political capital.
The economic disadvantages of a landlocked state can be mitigated or exacerbated depending on the degree of development, language barriers and other considerations. Some landlocked states have historically been wealthy states, such as Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Austria, all of which often employed neutrality to their political advantage.
Today, however, most landlocked countries are classified as landlocked developing countries (LLDCs). According to the Human Development Index (HDI), 9 out of 12 countries with a low development index are landlocked.
Landlocked Nations Forms
A landlocked state may be limited to one or two or more states with access to the high seas, or a landlocked state may be surrounded by other landlocked states (making it a double-locked landlocked state).
Landlocked Countries Surrounded by a Country
There are three landlocked states surrounded by a single state, namely:
Lesotho, a country surrounded by South Africa.
San Marino, a country surrounded by Italy.
The Vatican, a country that is part of Rome, and therefore surrounded by Italy.
Landlocked countries surrounded by two countries
There are seven landlocked countries surrounded by two states, namely:
Andorra (between France and Spain)
Bhutan (between India and China)
Liechtenstein (a double-locked landlocked country surrounded by Switzerland and Austria)
Moldova (between Ukraine and Romania)
Mongolia (between Russia and China)
Nepal (between India and China)
Eswatini (between South Africa and Mozambique) Three other countries can be added to this group, but they are de facto with limited or no international recognition, namely:
South Ossetia (between Russia and Georgia)
Transnistria (between Ukraine and Moldova)
The West Bank (between Israel and Jordan) apart from the Gaza Strip.
Double Confinement Landlocked States
A double-locked landlocked state is a landlocked state surrounded by another landlocked state (which requires crossing a border