Syrian Arab Republic


October 28, 2021

Syria, or Syria, or (officially: the Syrian Arab Republic, as it has been called since 1961), is an Arab country that is considered a central republic, consisting of 14 governorates, with its capital and largest city being Damascus. Located within the Middle East region in Western Asia; It is bordered to the north by Turkey, to the east by Iraq, to ​​the south by Jordan, and to the west by Palestine, Lebanon, and the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of ​​185,180 square km, and varied topography and vegetation and animal cover, and a climate ranging between Mediterranean and semi-arid. Syria ranks alongside Iraq as the oldest site of the cradle of human civilization, and it derives its name according to the most academic theories from Assyria; In any case, the historical region of Syria is different from the modern Syrian state in terms of extension and area, and the first refers to the Levant, or the Fertile Crescent. Human traces have been found in Syria dating back thousands of years, and the city of Damascus is considered the oldest city in the world, and the country contains many human settlements dating back to the Stone Age. On the entire Fertile Crescent, and the Aramaic civilization emerged since the eleventh century BC, which continued the country's basic cultural identity until the majority of it was Arabized by the eleventh century AD. In the Antique period, the country was part of the Seleucid Empire - notably the Seleucid kings called themselves King of Syria - then the Roman and Byzantine Empire; During the Middle Ages after the conquest of the Levant, the country was the capital of the Umayyad state - the largest Islamic state in history in terms of area - and during the Abbasid state a number of emirates and influential countries were established, followed by the establishment of Ottoman Syria, which lasted until the First World War. After the war, the independence of Syria was declared on March 8, 1920 by the Syrian General Conference, but France refused to recognize the conference, and issued in September 1920 partition decrees, later and gradually until 1936 the five entities were re-union within the Syrian Republic, which gained complete independence in 1946, to end The short period of parliamentary democracy, which was punctuated by many crises, in 1963 with the establishment of the one-party, socialist system. In 2011, the Syrian crisis erupted, which led to widespread destruction in the country, and was described as the biggest disaster in the modern era. The current constitution was issued in 2012. Like its predecessor, the 1973 constitution stipulates that the system of government is republican and presidential. The Syrian people, who are developing and diverse ethnically, linguistically and religiously, and

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