January 20, 2022

Kazakhstan Respublika Kazakhstan is the largest landlocked country in the world and the ninth largest in the world by area, with an area of ​​2,724,900 square kilometers (1,052,100 sq mi). It is a country located in Eurasia, that is, between Europe and Asia, but most of the western parts of it are located in Europe. Kazakhstan is the most powerful country in Central Asia economically, with a GDP of 60% of the region's GDP, mainly because of its oil and gas industry. It also has ample mineral resources. Kazakhstan is a democratic, secular and constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and borders a large part of the Caspian Sea. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppes, taiga, rocky canyons, hills, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. About 18.3 million people live in Kazakhstan as of 2018. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest globally, at less than 6 people per square kilometer. The capital is Nur-Sultan (until 2019 its name was Astana), as it was made the capital in 1997 instead of Almaty, the country's largest city. Historically, the lands of Kazakhstan were inhabited by nomadic groups and empires. In ancient times, these lands were inhabited by the Scythians, and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded into the southern region of the country (to its present borders). Turkish nomads belonging to several Turkish dynasties, such as the Göktürk Khanate, etc., have inhabited the country throughout the country's history. In the 13th century, the region joined the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakhs emerged as a distinct group, divided into three parts (dynasties occupying specific regions). The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh bays in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganized several times. In 1936, the Kazakh SSR became part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last Soviet republic to declare its independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first president of Kazakhstan, has been described as an authoritarian, and his government has accused

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