July 5, 2022
Canada, officially the Federation of Canada, is a country in North America consisting of 10 provinces and three territories. It is located in the northern part of the continent and extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and extends north into the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the second country in the world in terms of total area. Canada's border with the United States to the south and northwest is also the longest in the world. The territory of Canada has been inhabited for thousands of years by various groups of indigenous people. By the late 15th century British and French expeditions had begun to explore the area and then to settle it along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its North American colonies in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of the three British North American colonies through a confederation, Canada was formed as a federation of four sovereigns. This began a process in which Canada expanded its territory and expanded its autonomy from the United Kingdom. This independence manifested itself through the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act 1982 that cut off Canada's legal dependence on the British Parliament. Canada is a federal state governed by a representative democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state. The Canadian nation is a bilingual nation with English and French two official languages at the federal level. Canada is one of the most developed countries in the world. It has a diversified economy and depends on its abundant natural resources, and on trade, especially with the United States, which have a long and complex relationship. Canada is a member of the Group of Seven, the Group of Eight, the Group of Twenty, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Francophone, the Organization of American States, APEC and the United Nations. Canada has one of the highest standards of living in the world, with its Human Development Index (HDI) ranking eighth in the world.