January 18, 2022

The Greeks (Greek: Έλληνες) are also sometimes called the Hellenes, as the ancient Greeks were called "Greeks" in Arabic. It is a nation and ethnic group residing in Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, and to a lesser extent in other countries surrounding the Mediterranean. They also constitute an important diaspora, which led to the establishment of Greek societies around the world. Historically Greek settlements were established in large areas of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, but the Greek race remained concentrated in the areas bordering the Aegean and Ionian Seas, where the Greek language was spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early twentieth century, the Greeks were distributed among the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus and Constantinople. Many of these areas were largely within the borders of the Byzantine Empire in the late eleventh century and the eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of Greece included Athens, Thessaloniki, Alexandria, Smyrna and Constantinople in different periods. Most Greeks nowadays live within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923 nearly ended the three-thousand-year Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other long-residing Greek populations can be found in southern Italy, the Caucasus, southern Russia and Ukraine, and in Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially members of the Greek Orthodox Church. Currently, Greeks are present in many regions of the world and in relatively large groups, except for Greece, which had a population in 2001 of about 10.9 million, of whom Greeks constituted about 10.1 million, and in 2007 the number of Greeks in the United States was estimated About 1.3 million and in Cyprus in 2001 they were estimated at about 635,000 people, in addition to other large groups exceeding a quarter of a million people in Australia, Germany, Britain and Canada, about 90,000 in Chile, about 15,000 in Sweden and 55,000 in South Africa. The Greeks greatly contributed and influenced culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporary. The three most famous Greek philosophers are: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle

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