Sultan Al-Malik Al-Ashraf Abu Al-Nasr Seif Al-Din Qaitbay Al-Mahmoudi Al-Zahiri (1412 - Cairo, 7 August 1496), Sultan of the nineteenth Mamluk Burji (Circassian) state. He ruled for 26 years and was considered one of the greatest sultans of the Mamluk state. One of his famous buildings is the Qaitbay Citadel in Alexandria.
He was born in the year 1421 in the country of the Qibjak, which is one of the regions of the Volga River in Russia now, and it was one of the most important markets for slaves who were sold and then became Mamluks in the Abbasid state. When he was thirteen years old, he was bought by a merchant named Mahmoud Ibn Rustam who brought him to Egypt in the year 1435. The Sultan of Egypt at the time, the King [Al-Ashraf Barsbay] bought it for fifty dinars and became owned and sent him to learn and train with the rest of the Mamluks. After the death of Al-Ashraf Barsbay, Al-Zahir Jaqmaq arrived through purchase and appointed Jamdar), then (Khasaki), then became (Dwadar), and in the end he was freed and left in the army and took up promotion until he arrived (Atabek) - (commander) of the army during the reign of Sultan Al-Zahir Tamragha, who appointed him to this position after his inauguration the Sultan of Egypt.
The Mamluks rose up against the apparent sultan Tembargha and deposed him from the sultan. They wanted to evict Qaytbay Sultan, and they sold to the Abbasid caliph, who sought help from God Fajh, and with him the four judges. However, he did not want to remain Sultan because he was afraid of the matter and his kings would kill him, and Ibn Iyas says about him that he cried when they pledged allegiance to him, and he was reluctant, and they dressed him in the clothes of the king.
He was ascetic and austere, and his guardian in knowledge, and seduced his readers, and he had a tendency to Sufism. He was brave, knight, and wise, very miserly. He paid attention to the army with an exaggerated and strange interest, and Ibn Iyas said that he spent about seven million five hundred and sixty thousand dinars on the army, and this amount was very much as a budget for the army in relation to his time, and he was generous in gifts to the Mamluks and the soldiers when they returned from the fighting fronts to the point that one gift was to reach two thousand Dinars and all this spending made people's situation narrow from the amount of money required to cover the expenses of the armies and the military.
Buildings built during his reign
Many buildings were built, many of which remain, such as his famous castle and mosque, and this list contains the most important buildings that were built during his reign:
Azbek Ibn Tatch Mosque.
Qaitbay school and cemetery
Qaitbay school in the city
Qaitbay Agency, next to Al-Azhar
Qaitbay, Bab Al-Nasr and Al-Sroujia Agency
Qaitbay Silver Dome
Qaitbay Palace and Place
Abu Bakr bin Mazhar School