November 28, 2021
The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a political coup and a popular revolution that began in France in 1789 and had a great impact on the whole world. It is considered the first liberal revolution in history.
Historians do not agree on the reason for its rise. Some historians say that it was a mental movement that emerged from the Enlightenment movement in the 18th century, and there are historians who say that it was a revolution against feudal tyranny, injustice, corruption and the spread of Enlightenment ideas. The French Revolution with its many achievements for the French and for the whole world , It is considered one of the bloodiest revolutions in history and the longest. The term French revolution is often said about the revolution that took place in France in the year 1789 to 1799, although the term can be said about more than one revolution that took place in France in the nineteenth century.
Conditions before the revolution
French society was divided in the form of a class hierarchy, first the king, the nobility and the clergy, and then the third class, which consisted of the educated bourgeoisie, which was deprived of political participation and in the end remained the peasants, the workers and the rest of the people. The clergy had more rights than the rest of the people as they did not pay taxes and had strong influence and could escape legal penalties.
France has entered a state of bankruptcy due to corruption, lack of agricultural crops and the intervention of King Louis XVI in the economy with his wrong decisions. What made the situation worse was the lack of foodstuffs, and this meant a disaster for the whole people, and there were rumors saying that the flour is smuggled and sold abroad. Also, King Louis XVI had sent 200 million livres (the currency of France at that time) to help the Americans in their revolt against the English, his enemies, at the same time that his country was almost bankrupt and the people had no food. Because of this economic crisis, people did not have the price of bread. Where it became equivalent to the salary of the whole month, which made them carry out sit-ins and strikes, and the latter increased the unemployment rate in the country.
In addition, the system of government was dominated by the king, the nobles, and the clergy, as they interfered in everything small and large, and while they were not held accountable for their actions, as the class of intellectuals had no influence in the government, they only had a small part in the French Parliament, as the The majority of it are nobles and the king's men, who stop any decision or reform law that limits the power of the nobles and makes them equal with the rest of the people.
Enlightenment philosophers and thinkers had a clear impact on French society and Europe. The Enlightenment demanded people's rights, freedom and equality, which did not exist in France at the time. Thinkers and philosophers