December 7, 2021

(The official name of the country in Arabic: the Republic of Iraq; Kurdish: Îraqê, Komara Îraqê; in Turkmen: Iraki Cumhuriyeti; modern Aramaic: ܥܸܪܵܩ) is a country in southwest Asia and shares borders with Turkey, Iran, Kuwait, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria and It has a coast (60 km) on the Gulf of Basra. Iraq passes through it two main rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, which helped establish civilization on their banks to this day. The capital of Iraq is Baghdad, and its place is in the center of Iraq. Baghdad divides the Tigris River into two halves, Karkh and Rusafa, the Mesopotamia region (the Mesopotamian region), which forms part of Iraq in which many civilizations, peoples and nations have lived for centuries. It was ruled and ruled by the Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek and Mughal empires, and Baghdad was the seat of the Abbasid Caliphate until it was destroyed by the Mongol leader Hulagu in 1258 and after him Tamerlane destroyed it in the year 1400 and then the Safavid Persians invaded it in 1508 until it was captured The Ottoman Turks divided it into three states, and in 1917 it was seized by Britain, and in 2003 it was invaded by America. Al-Jazeera was the name given by Arab historians to the area between the Tigris and the Euphrates and its environs

Ancient History

The region of Mesopotamia (Mesopotamia), which includes present-day Iraq, is considered the first region in the world in which the first civilizations arose. The establishment of societies began in the Mesopotamian region when people began to settle in the area about 8000 years ago, and advanced civilized centers appeared with the first human settlement in Uruk in the present south of Iraq in the present-day city of Nasiriyah, and it extended to its surroundings. Temples they decorated with precious metals and precious stones, and then invented the cuneiform writing and began to use it in records, sales and purchase contracts, marriage, organizing state administration and documenting events. The Sumerians are considered the first to inhabit the region and their state grew and reached the middle of the Euphrates and adopted the city of Ezin, and then the cities of Kish, Ur and Larsa, and when the Akkadians, who are Semitic Aryan peoples, came to Sumer and lived with them about a year (2350 BC) The one who seized the region and founded the city of Akkad and established an empire. The situation remained unchanged until the emergence of the Gutians in the year (2218 BC). The Gutians were a people who lived in the eastern region, and after the return of the region to the Sumerians, they ruled the region again until the rule of the Elamites, who are from Ahvas in the east present-day Iraq and present-day western Iran, and they destroyed Ur.

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