The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, or “Saudi Arabia,” is a kingdom with an area of about 2,149,690 km2 in southwest Asia, and a population of 27,123,977. Saudi Arabia covers most of the Arabian Peninsula and extends horizontally from the Persian Gulf to the Red Sea. Its capital is Riyadh, and its most important port is Jeddah on the Red Sea. Saudi Arabia shares its borders with Yemen, the Sultanate of Oman, the Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Iraq and Jordan.
Saudi Arabia is considered one of the important countries in economic, political and religious terms. Its economy is the strongest in the Arab region and it is the largest exporter of petroleum in the world. The location of Saudi Arabia between the Red Sea and the Gulf holds strategic and political importance, and the presence of the most important sanctities of Muslims on its lands in Mecca and Medina make it a central place in the Islamic world. Culture flourished in Saudi Arabia in recent years, and there remained researchers and writers at a high level of knowledge and enlightenment, and many of them received their education in the largest universities in the world.
Seven kings have ruled the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia until now, the last of whom is the current King Salman bin Abdulaziz.
Geography and Economy
Saudi Arabia consists of a coastal plain (Tihamah) in the west and beyond it is the Sarat Mountains, and the central region includes the Najd plateau, which ends in the east at a wide sandy area called the Great Nafud, and in the south at the deserts of the Empty Quarter. The desert of Al-Dahna connects between the two deserts and Al-Ahsa Province is located behind it.
The climate of Saudi Arabia is dry continental, and simple agriculture depends on groundwater from wells and natural springs, or on the little rain that is stored by dams built in valleys. The most important agricultural yields are barley, wheat, alfalfa, vegetables and fruits.
After its discovery, oil remained the basis of the Saudi economy after the Second World War, and its most important fields are located in Al-Ahsa, and there are refineries in Ras Tanura on the Gulf. The Tablin pipeline connects to the coasts of the Mediterranean. Saudi Arabia also exports dates and imports foodstuffs, textiles, cars and modern machinery.
Saudi Arabia is divided into four large provinces:
Al-Ahsa is known as the Eastern Province, its capital is Dammam, and its most important cities are Qatif, Dhahran, and Ras Tanura.
Najd, which is in the center, and the capital, Riyadh.
The Hijaz is the western region along the Red Sea, and it contains the city of Jeddah, and the two most important cities holy to Muslims are Mecca and Medina.
Asir and its capital, Abha.
History of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The ruling Saudi family appeared in the nineteenth century, when the Wahhabi call became a call of religion and state as a result of the pact of the clergyman, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Aziz.