January 20, 2022
Beirut is the capital of Lebanon and the largest city in it, and its population reached 2.1 million in 2007. Beirut is built on a peninsula in front of the mountains of Lebanon and overlooks the Mediterranean Sea, and it has the largest port in Lebanon. The ancient Egyptian and this dates back to about 1500 years BC, and from that time and the city is still known by this name. Beirut itself dates back more than 5,000 years, as shown by archaeological discoveries, and the word Beirut in the Canaanite means abyar (plural of bir and the plural of waw and tah). Beirut was an important center for Phoenician trade and flourished during the rule of the Seleucids, Romans and Byzantines. It was conquered and settled by the Muslim Arabs in the year 635, and the European Crusaders conquered and settled it in the year 1110, and it remained part of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Among them was Isabel de Ibelin, the lady of Beirut. Al-Ashraf Khalil Sultan of Egypt, the Crusaders emerged from it in 1292. It was conquered and ruled by the Ottoman Turks, and it remained an Ottoman state, and during the period of their rule it was dominated by the Druze. The Egyptians invaded it by order of Muhammad Ali in the year 1832 at the time of his wars against the Ottomans, but the English and French fleets forced him to evacuate it in the year 1840. It was conquered and ruled by the French from 1918 to 1944. Beirut is built on the top of two hills: Tel Al-Ashrafiyeh (East Beirut) and Tel Al-Musaytbeh (West Beirut), and it is bordered by two rivers: Nahr El Kalb in the north and Nahr El Damour in the south. Its landmarks include the Lebanese University, the American University, and Saint Joseph University. It is considered an important cultural center in the Middle East.