May 21, 2022

Damascus (Egyptian pronunciation: /deˈmeʃʔ/; Syrians call it Levant) is a city in southern Syria and its capital since 1943. No one knows the exact date of its establishment. It was occupied by the Assyrians and the Persians, and it was invaded by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. It was annexed by the Seleucids, and then seized it in the year 64 BC. It was captured by the Arabs under the leadership of Abu Ubaidah Amir Ibn al-Jarrah after the Battle of Yarmouk (635), and it remained an important city during the Umayyad rule (661-750), and was famous for its manufacture of weapons and precious metals. It was captured by the Mongols once. Hulagu in 1260, Ghazan in 1299, and Tamerlane in 1400. After the Mongols were expelled from it after the battle of Ain Jalut, it was ruled by the deputies of the sultans of the Mamluk state in Egypt (1260 - 1517). The Ottoman Turks seized it and ruled it from 1516 to 1917. After the success of the Great Arab Revolt, Sharif Hussein bin Ali entered the Levant, the Arab Kingdom of Syria was formed, and Faisal Ibn Sharif Hussein bin Ali was pledged allegiance to the country in March 1920, and then it fell after France’s victory over Syria in the Battle of Maysaloun was subject to the French mandate (1920 - 1946). Among the most important monuments of the Umayyad Mosque, and the burials of Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi, Nur al-Din Mahmoud, and al-Zahir Baybars.

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