January 20, 2022

Sultan (English: Sultan) in Arabic is an Arabic masculine science name meaning: argument, power, authority, king. The Almighty said: “And I have no authority over you” [Surat Ibrahim, Verse 22] meaning any argument. Sultan is mentioned in various forms in thirty-seven places in the Holy Qur’an with different meanings. Sultan is a title used by many Arab and Muslim rulers. The word is derived from sult (plural of authority, which means control and power). The title "Sultan" was used in Islamic times by the Seljuk Turks and the Ottomans in Anatolia, Iran, Egypt, and Turkey. In the beginning, the word was used to denote spiritual authority. Template: Fix/category , later acquired its political form as a title for rulers and kings. The first Muslim ruler to be called the Sultan was Mahmoud al-Ghaznawi (Mahmoud bin Sobektekin, born on November 2, 971 AD - died on April 30, 1030 AD), who ruled the Ghaznawi state from 998 AD to 1030 AD during the time of the Abbasid Caliphate. He was known for his interest in literature and the arts, and he lived in His reign was many scholars and poets. Some rumors circulated about the origin of his name Al-Sultan Template:Fix/category It was said that Khalaf bin Ahmed, the ruler of Sijistan, was intending to establish a state for himself, so Mahmoud al-Ghaznawi learned of this and prepared to fight him, but Khalaf was afraid of him and handed him the keys of the fortresses and named him Sultan (as arrogant and hypocritical). Mahmoud liked the title and became nicknamed by those who ruled after him Template: Fix/category . Salah al-Din also took the title of Sultan of Egypt, and the last sultan who had real authority over the Ottoman Empire was the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who refused to sell Palestinian land to the Jews by refusing to offer Herzl, a very large sum of money and a bribe to Sultan Abdul Hamid II himself in exchange for part of the land of Palestine But he refused because he was very jealous of Islam and its homeland. Before that, Muslim rulers were called by titles such as Caliph, Amir and Amir al-Amra, and after that the use of the title extended throughout the Islamic world, especially among the Seljuks. Al-Suyuti conveyed that the title of Sultan is called the ruler who is under his control by kings, so he will remain the king of kings and be under his control, for example, 10,000 knights, and the more the country increases and the number of soldiers under his hands becomes greater and can be called the greatest sultan or the sultan of the sultans. The most famous and greatest of the sultans were the sultans of the Ayyubid state, among whom were Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi and al-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub, and the sultans of the Mamluk state in Egypt, among whom were al-Zahir Baybars, Qalawun, Qutuz, al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun and al-Ashraf Khalil, and the sultans of the Ottoman state in Turkey . After the weakening of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad, the governor of Baghdad was also called Sultan, mostly as a mere arrogance, as was the case in Egypt.

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