May 21, 2022
Lebanon (French: Liban; official: Republic of Lebanon, French: République libanaise) is a small Mediterranean country that has borders with Syria in the north and east, and from the south, it has borders with Israel and gained independence from France in 1943. Lebanon has an area of 10,452 A square kilometer and a population of just over four million. From after independence and until the civil war (1975-1990), Lebanon was an example of freedom and pluralism in the Middle East and was known as the Switzerland of the East because of the peace, prosperity and relative wealth that was Its inhabitants live there. Its capital is Beirut, and its important cities are Sidon and Tyre. With Egypt, Lebanon is considered one of the rare cultural and civilizational centers in the Middle East. A large number of writers and artists came out of Lebanon, such as Gibran Khalil Gibran, Elia Abu Madi, Jurji Zaidan, May Ziade and others, and the Lebanese had a great contribution to spread literature and modern arts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, in particular. In Egypt, there is today a publishing and translation activity. The history of Lebanon, its openness to the world and its connection with Europe over time made it a civilized advantage and flexibility in dealing with cultures, and this was reflected in a positive way on its people, who are familiar with urbanization and modernity and respond to the changes of the age and tolerance and the ability to digest new ideas and that is why despite their smallness Lebanon's geographical size, but its impact was great on the renaissance movement and the development that the Middle East witnessed from the beginning of the twentieth century, and the Lebanese played a huge role in establishing and developing journalism, writing, literature and theater in Egypt. But in the difficult circumstances that occurred with the political and military developments around Lebanon and its atmosphere in the last hill of the twentieth century, Lebanon opened up and tolerated it amid a backward region in which violence spread. which broke out in 1975.