Australia

Article

January 23, 2022

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a state in the southern hemisphere that makes up a continent; and it also includes several small islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Continental Australia covers an area of ​​7.69 million square kilometers and is, at the same time, the largest island in the world, but the smallest continent; Australia is, in fact, the main part of the ocean continent; The Australian state also includes the island of Tasmania and various outbuildings, such as Christmas and Norfolk Islands. Neighboring countries are New Zealand, in the southeast; and, to the north, Indonesia, East Timor, and Papua New Guinea, from which it is separated by the Torres Strait. Australia is bordered by the Timor and Arafura Seas to the north, the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea to the east, the Antarctic Ocean to the south, and the Indian Ocean to the west. From north to south it is about 3,700 kilometers, while from east to west it is about 4,000. It is the sixth largest state on the planet after Russia, Canada, China, the United States and Brazil; but its population does not reach 20 million people. The roof of the country is Mount Kosciusko, with an altitude of 2,228 meters. The main river is the Murray, 2,575 kilometers long. Continental Australia has been inhabited by Indigenous Australians for over 42,000 years. After sporadic visits by northern fishermen, and European explorers and traders in the seventeenth century, the eastern half of the continent was claimed by the British in 1770 and officially inhabited as a penitentiary under the name of the New Wales colony. South, January 6, 1788. As the population grew and new areas were explored, five more autonomous colonies of the crown were established successively in the course of the nineteenth century. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies were federated to form the Commonwealth of Australia. Since the creation of the federation, Australia has maintained a liberal and democratic system and is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The capital of the federation is Canberra, although most of the Australian population lives in the coastal cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide.

Etymology

The name Australia is derived from the Latin Australis, meaning 'Southern' or 'Southern'. The legends of an "unknown land of the south" (terra australis incognita) date back to Roman times and appear on geographical maps of the Middle Ages, although there was no knowledge of a continent in the Middle Ages. 'southern hemisphere. The first use of the name Australia in English was in 1625, in the words: "A note of Australia of the Holy Spirit, written by Master Hakluyt", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus. The Dutch adjective Australische va used by Batavian officials to refer to the land discovered in the south in 1638. Gabriel de Goigny, under the pseudonym Jacques Sadeur, used it in his translation of The Adventures of Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte e le Voyage de la Terre Australe, in 1692. Alexander Dalrymple later used the denomination in his work An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean (1771), to refer to the entire South Pacific region. . In 1793, George Shaw and Sir Edward Smith published the work Zoology and Botanny of New Holland, which contained the phrase "… of the vast island, or rather, continent of Australia, Australasia, or New Holland." The term Australia became popular from the play A Voyage to Terra Australis by navigator Matthew Flinders, the first person to circumnavigate the island. Governor Lachlan Macquarie of New South Wales used this name in his letters to England, and on December 12, 1817, he recommended that the Colonial Office make official use of it. In 1824, the Admiralty accepted o

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