Colombia

Article

July 5, 2022

Colombia - or the Republic of Colombia - is a state of South America. Its north and northeast coast is in the Caribbean Sea. It borders Venezuela to the east; with Brazil, in the southeast; with Peru and Ecuador to the south; and with Panama and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

History

Pre-Columbian cultures (golden cultures)

The Preclassic period, as the period of time in Colombia between 1200 and 1510 is known, is when the most complex cultures were formed, which the Colombian natives reached before the Spanish cultural intervention. Complicated hierarchies, efficient politico-administrative structure, monumental cities, countless works of art, oral and immaterial traditions that reveal the level of development of these true civilizations.

The Quimbaies

Surrounded by eternal guaduals and yarums, the Quimbaies are famous for their skill in building with the Guadua Bamboo, their exquisite goldsmithing and their brave warriors. These inhabited the region of the present coffee Axis, especially in the present department of the Quindío. The Quimbaies, are the creators of perhaps the most famous pre-Columbian gold piece in the world: the Poporo Quimbaia (Gold Museum), and one of the most impressive collections of Pre-Hispanic Art: The Treasure of the Quimbaies (Museum of America of Madrid) .The Quimbaies, it is estimated that they were almost 1,000,000, lived in round guadua huts and palm roofs. The stoves were public, were shared by three or four families each, and were set apart in a hut near the three houses. The villages were quite compact, and it was common for each village of Quimbaia not to exceed three different families, making the treatment within the villages very cordial and familiar. The agricultural production of the Quimbaies was not as efficient as in other cultures, which already knew and practiced crop rotation. They cultivated a land and let it rest, while the following year another was taken, and so on. His method was to burn the earth, cut down what was left standing, and plow it to sow, slowly killing the nutrients in the earth. Although they were experts in growing in bundles in the steepest areas, they thus prevented erosion. But these methods of burning were compensated with the sowing of Bamboo Guadues, which in addition to being a source of wood, preserved a lot of water and restored the nutrients of the earth. The most common crops were corn, earrings, beans, figs and cassava. The Quimbaies developed a systematized collection of fruits and berries, especially those of guamas, pitaias, guavas, avocados and caimits. But the plant they used the most was the guadua. The guadua is an abundant bamboo in the region of the current coffee axis, and was used by the Quimbaies to make everything from toys, weapons to houses. Salt was one of the reasons why the Quimbaies were not conquered by aggressive peoples such as the Muzus and Panzes, the salt springs of Consota, Cori, Coinza and Caramanta were monopolized by the Quimbaies, who controlled the mineral trade in the area west of the Central System. In these salt springs, the Quimbaia wit divided the salt water from the freshwater and the salt water carried by guadua tubes into the kilns. where it was evaporated and extracted. The Quimbaies kept all the salt in special tanks owned by each family. The salt was used both to pay tribute to the chief and to the neighboring tribes. The Quimbaies were one of the last cultures to disappear, because the areas they inhabited were almost inaccessible, surrounded on each side by snow-capped peaks and with two jungle caps to the north or south. However, the Spaniards came under the command of Jorge Robledo, who had already conquered northern Antioch. Robledo first treated the Quimbaies well, but then began to send them to work. The Quimbaies prayed