Army of Catalonia (1713-1714)

Article

January 23, 2022

The Army of the Principality of Catalonia was the army raised and paid for by the Catalan aristocracy, the Diputació del General de Catalunya and the Junta de Braços (Catalan Courts without a King) on ​​July 9, 1713 after the English betrayal of the Peace of Utrecht and the withdrawal of imperial troops by the Hospitalet Convention. The army consisted of 10,000 men of infantry, 1600 of cavalry and 1000 of navy. It is not known how many men formed the artillery but did not exceed 700. In total there were 13,000 regular troops. On the same July 9, 1713 the Principality of Catalonia had declared war on the Kingdom of France and the Duke of Anjou, which since the Constitutions of Catalonia of 1706 did not recognize as the legitimate king of the Spanish Monarchy and the next day a ban was issued to remove cash by the Army of Catalonia, being its first units the Regiment of the Diputació of the General of Catalonia and the Regiment of the City of Barcelona. The Tres Comuns de Catalunya appointed Lieutenant Marshal Antoni de Villarroel i Peláez as commander-in-chief on 10 July. The artillery and cavalry regiment of the Faith were funded by the merchant Amador Dalmau i Colom, as well as two ships for the navy. The initial trend was to create an "army of nations," so that the soldiers of each Hispanic nation. enlist in a particular regiment. Despite this, the recruitment objectives by nation were not met and many of the vacancies and almost all of the senior officials were Catalan. Apart from the nations of the Spanish Monarchy, the St. Narcissus Regiment was also formed to house German and Austrian volunteers who had refused to obey the evacuation orders of their officers. The aim of the army was to defend the Principality, the institutions and its existence from the Bourbon offensive that would end the country.

Infantry

The formation of the Army of Catalonia had a total of 10,000 men of regular infantry, based, at first, on two existing infantry regiments: the City and the Provincial. From these, up to eight new regiments of regulated infantry were created; taking advantage of the experienced soldiers and officers who had remained in Catalonia after the withdrawal of the various Allied armies. Catalans: Regiment of the Diputació del General de Catalunya Catalans: Regiment of the City of Barcelona Castellans: Regiment of the Immaculate Conception Navarrese: Santa Eulàlia Regiment Valencians: Infantry Regiment of Our Lady of the Abandoned Germans: St. Narcissus Regiment Catalans: Regiment of Our Lady of the Roser Catalans: Regiment of Colonel BusquetsThe colonels were the urban militias of the main cities of Catalonia during the modern age: Colonel of Barcelona, ​​Colonel of Lleida, Colonel of Tortosa, Colonel of Tarragona or Colonel of Manresa, cities that under the protection of the Catalan Constitutions enjoyed autonomy to arm and defend themselves in the event of aggression. They were formed by militarized citizens of the trades guilds. However, Colonels and mercenary troops such as the Miquelets were not included in the army, the troops had to be professional and well armed.

Cavalry

The cavalry, in the first moments of the formation of the Army of Catalonia, was of high strategic importance. Thanks to their high mobility, the Catalan authorities hoped to be able to prevent the fall of important sites in Bourbon hands and open fronts in inland Catalonia. This branch was composed of six regiments, which were formed or rearranged, in addition to other companies, such as the Hungarian hussars, probably framed in St. George. Rafael Nebot Cavalry Regiment La Fe cavalry regiment Sant Jordi Cavalry Regiment Cavalry regiment Dragons-Cuirassers of Sant M

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