Francoism

Article

August 19, 2022

Francoism was an authoritarian and dictatorial political regime in force in Spain between 1939 and 1975, and the ideology on which it was based is also called as such. Based on the leadership of General Francisco Franco Bahamonde, Francoism was born with the military victory in the Spanish Civil War. His power was based on the control of all the branches of the State: head of state, government, the single party, the National Movement, and the army as well as a close collaboration with the church Catholic The Francoist courts had no legislative initiative, because Franco concentrated executive and legislative power in a highly centralized government. The principle of separation of powers characteristic of a democratic regime was thus broken. A powerful police apparatus that persecuted the members of clandestine parties and unions and a strong propaganda apparatus are two more characteristics of the Franco regime. All of this set up a very personalist regime that did not legally survive the death of the dictator, on November 20, 1975. Although the ideology that derives from it continues to live on as well as many characters (even war criminals and torturers ) amnestied by the constitutional process known as the Spanish democratic transition (1978). According to the press of the time, King Juan Carlos I was the political heir of Francisco Franco, in charge of commanding the state and the Spanish army according to the criteria of the moment and the spirit of the national movement.

Characteristics of the scheme

Single match

It is a dictatorship in the strict sense, where there were no representative systems. There was a single party called Movimiento Nacional, which was formed by the Traditional Spanish Falange and the JONS. All civil servants who, in addition, had to swear the "Principios Fundamentales del Movimiento" collected in the Fundamental Laws, which established the political organization of the State, forming a simile of a constitution, had to belong to this party. Spain defined itself as an organic democracy. This system meant denying individual political rights and leaving popular representation indirectly in the hands of organizations (vertical union, heads of families or municipalities). In addition, some of the prosecutors in Corts (lack of legislative initiative) were appointed directly by Francisco Franco and others were there in their own right (some high military and ecclesiastical officials). This system was intended to show the international community the illusion that there was some kind of democracy in Franco's Spain.

Economic interventionism

Franco's state was capitalist, but with great economic interventionism on the part of the State, which tried to improve the economy through successive "development plans". Private property was a recognized right, but the State was above individual interests. This authoritarian, interventionist and controlling system left employers and landowners above workers in negotiations. Control of labor relations was exercised by the vertical union and strikes were considered subversive and therefore prohibited. From the 1950s, Franco softened the interventionism of the regime, the autarky, to get out of the economic crisis and secure the support and investments of the Western allies.

Ideology: National Catholicism

Francoism, unlike other totalitarian movements, such as Italian fascism and Nazism, did not contribute a well-defined or innovative ideology of its own. Francoism was based on the ideology of those who supported the military coup of July 18, 1936 (the "glorious national uprising"). The ideological bases of the regime were those of the traditionalist conservative and fascist sectors. Along with Onésimo Redondo and the