January 23, 2022

Kazakhstan ([kazaχˈstan]), with the possible name in Catalan Kazakhstan in question, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Қазақстан Республикасы, Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy, or Республика Казахстан , China to the southeast, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan to the south, and the Caspian Sea to the west. It is the ninth largest country in the world. Its multiethnicity situation stands out (different ethnic groups are represented in the state).


In the region now known as Kazakhstan, nomadic humans have lived there since the Stone Age. Nomadic tribes lived there from the 1st century BC. From the 4th century to the beginning of the 13th century, the territory of Kazakhstan was dominated by a number of nomadic nations until the invasion of the Mongols, who established an administrative district there. The great medieval cities of Aulie-Ata and Turkestan were founded during this time along the northern Silk Road. The first state in the region was formed in the 6th century. It was Göktürks. Towards the 16th century the Kazakhs emerged as a distinct group, divided into three tribes. The Russians began advancing on the Kazakh steppe in the eighteenth century, and by the mid-nineteenth century all of Kazakhstan was part of the Russian Empire. From the second half of the 19th century onwards, peasant migration from Russia and Ukraine took place in the north, west and south-east of the country. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Civil War, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganized on several occasions before becoming the Soviet Socialist Republic of Kazakhstan in 1936, as part of the USSR. It was part of the Soviet Union as the Soviet Socialist Republic of Kazakhstan until the dissolution of the USSR on December 16, 1991, when it proclaimed its independence. During the 1930s and 1950s some seventy groups ethnic groups moved to the region under Soviet policies. Between 1931 and 1933, the Soviet government ran programs to make Kazakhs living as shepherds sedentary. During this same time, the famine (called zhut) occurred, causing population decline and emigration to neighboring regions, and the country lost 23% of its population: China was the one that received the most. During World War II, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Kazakhstan contributed five national divisions to the forces of the Soviet Union. Some of their fighters were praised as War Heroes, and are still revered by Kazakhs today. Kazakhstan was the center of several Soviet-era projects, such as the Khrushchev Virgin Land campaign, the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and the now dismantled Semipalatinsk test site, the USSR's nuclear test center. Following the country's independence, the Kazakhstan government pursued repatriation policies. As a result, between 1991 and 2011, 860,400 Kazakhs entered the country. At least in 2015 the country is experiencing the situation of multiethnicity, which is when different ethnic groups are represented in the state. Since independence, political stability has been achieved while violating human rights. From 1990 to 2016, the quality of life of the people of Kazakhstan has improved, according to data collected by the United Nations. From 2000 to 2013, economic growth was halted only during 2008 and 2009 due to the international financial crisis. In 2006, there was a conflict between the Kazakh and Uyghur ethnic groups in Shelek, a village in the Almaty region, which resulted in injuries. In 2007, there was another between Kazakhs and Chechens in Malovodnoye, which resulted in two deaths and six injuries. In 2012 the town

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