August 19, 2022

Mexico (in Spanish, México; in Mexican, Mexko; in Yucatec, Meejiko; in Mixtec, Ñuu Koꞌyo; in Otomí, Mꞌonda; in Totonaca, Méjiko; in Huastec, Labtóm), officially the United Mexican States (in Spanish, Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a constitutional federal republic of North America. It borders to the north with the United States of America; to the south and west, with the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast, with Guatemala, Belize and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east, with the Gulf of Mexico. The United Mexican States is a federation of thirty-one states and the city of Mexico, which is one of the most populated metropolitan areas in the world. With an area of ​​around 2 million square kilometers, Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas and the fourteenth largest in the world. With a population of 103 million inhabitants, it is the eleventh most populous country in the world, the country in America with the most indigenous people and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. It has 69 national languages, including Spanish, Mexican, Yucatec, Mixtec, Tzeltal, Tzotzil, Zapotec, Otomí, Totonac, Mazatec and Ch'ol. The Mexican territory has been inhabited for more than 21,000 years. The fertile central and southern areas were home to great civilizations, including the Olmec, Toltec, Maya, and Aztec. The latter built a great empire, the end of which was abrupt with the arrival of the Spanish who conquered it and established the viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1821 New Spain became independent, and thus Mexico was born; and in 1824 it was constituted as a federal republic. The first years of Mexico's independent life were marked by conflicts between conservatives and liberals, two foreign interventions and the loss of more than half of its territory at the hands of the Americans. The Mexican Revolution, war conflict from 1910 to 1917, produced a new social constitution still in force. The Mexican economy experienced a boom until the steep drop in oil prices during the 1980s. Mexico received a significant number of refugees from the Spanish Civil War and from the dictatorships of Latin America. The Institutional Revolutionary Party dominated the country's political life until 1997. In 1993 Mexico ratified the North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and the United States. Although it presents very marked contrasts of wealth and poverty, Mexico is a regional power in Latin America. In 1994 it became the first Latin American member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). According to the classification of the World Bank, Mexico is an upper middle income country, with the thirteenth largest gross domestic product in the world, after Spain. In 2008 it had the highest Gross National Income per capita in Latin America in nominal terms and in purchasing power parity, and one of the highest human development indices in the region. Its economy is closely linked to the economy of its partners in the North American Free Trade Area.


Pre-Columbian civilizations

See also: Pre-Columbian civilizations and Mesoamerica The Mexican territory was discovered and inhabited by groups of hunter-gatherers possibly more than 30,000 years ago. Remains of fires discovered in the Valley of Mexico have been radiocarbon dated to 21000 BC, and some stone tools have been found near hearths, indicating the presence of humans at that time. Agriculture developed there around 9000 BC, although the cultivation of corn began in 5000 BC. The first samples of pottery date from 2500 BC, which marks the beginning of the Mesoamerican civilization, as it defines the establishment of sedentary societies. The groups of the north of Mexico, the region of Aridoamerica, will continue to subsist by means of d