Pakistan

Article

January 23, 2022

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan or Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان) is a state located in south-central Asia. It borders India, Iran, Afghanistan, China and the Arabian Sea. It has more than 160 million inhabitants, most of whom are Muslims. Islam is the official religion. The word Pakistan is an acronym coined by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, which in Urdu means 'land of the pure'.

Etymology

The name Pakistan literally means 'Land of the Pure' in Urdu and Persian. It was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, an activist of the Pakistani Movement, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never. Figuratively, the name is a crossword that represents the "thirty million Muslim brothers living in PAKSTAN", referring to the names of the five northern regions of the Indian subcontinent: Punjab (Punjab), Afghanistan (present-day Frontier Province). Northeast), Kashmir (Kashmir), Sind (Sind), and Baluchistan (Baluchistan) ". The letter 'i' was added to facilitate pronunciation and form the linguistically correct name.

History

The history of Pakistan, the territory of which, for the period preceding the founding of the state in 1947, is intermittently shared by Afghanistan, India and Iran, can be traced back to the beginnings of human life. in South Asia, good and extending westward to the Indian subcontinent, and eastward to the border with the Iranian plateau. The present-day region of Pakistan served as fertile ground for some of the most important civilizations in South Asia and as a gateway to the subcontinent in the Middle East and Central Asia. Pakistan is home to some of the most important archaeological sites, including the oldest Paleolithic hominid site in South Asia, located in the Sohan River Valley. Located on the first coastal migration route of the anatomically modern homo sapiens out of Africa, the region was early inhabited by modern humans. The 9,000-year history of life in settlements in South Asia dates back to the Neolithic (7000 BC-4300 BC) and is located at the Mehrgarh site in Pakistan, and the 5,000-year urban history in South Asia in several places in the Indus Valley, including Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.

Neolithic period

Mehrgarh is one of the most important archaeological sites of the Neolithic period (7000 BC to 3200 BC); It is located in the Baluchistan plain, and is one of the oldest places with evidence of agriculture (wheat and barley) and pasture (livestock: sheep and goats) in South Asia. Mehrgarh was discovered in 1974 by an archeological team led by the Frenchman Jean-François Jarrige, and was continuously excavated from 1974 to 1986. The oldest settlement of Mehrgarh - on the northwest corner of the site of (2 km²) - was an agricultural village dated between 7000 and 5500 BC. The first residents of Mehrgarh lived in houses made of softwoods, stored their crops in barns, made tools with malachite found nearby, and waterproofed their large bins containing baskets of bitumen. They cultivated barley, wheat, spelled, kidney beans, and dates; they grazed sheep, goats and cattle. The inhabitants of the following period (5500 to 2600 BC) put more effort into handicrafts, such as the making of flint tools, leather tanning, jewelry production, and metallurgy. This site was continuously inhabited until 2600 BC. living person) was found in Mehrgarh. According to the authors, “here we describe eleven perforated molar crowns of nine adults, discovered in the Neolithic site in Pakistan, which dates from 7,500 to 9,000 years ago. These findings provide us with evidence of a long tradition of a type of protoodontology

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