Regne Unit

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January 23, 2022

The United Kingdom (British: The United Kingdom) is officially a sovereign island state located in northwestern Europe. . The United Kingdom is geographically made up of the island of Great Britain, a section of the north of the island of Ireland, and other smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only region (in addition to Gibraltar) in the United Kingdom with a land border, which it shares with the Republic of Ireland. In addition to this border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea. The United Kingdom is a political union of four nations: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy organized as a parliamentary democracy, whose seat is the city of London, and whose head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The Crown dependencies — the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man — are not part of the Union, but are federated in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom also has jurisdiction over 14 overseas territories, including Gibraltar and the Falkland Islands. Crown outbuildings belong to the British Isles but are not part of the UK. As a constitutional monarchy, the United Kingdom is politically related to 15 other Commonwealth Kingdoms with which it shares the monarch, Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. The United Kingdom is a developed country with the fifth largest gross domestic product in the world. It was the most important international power during the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century, but the economic costs of the two world wars and the demise of the Empire diminished its role in world affairs. The United Kingdom has a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council, and is a member of the G8, NATO, the WTO and the European Union. In June 2016, however, the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU, in a referendum called by David Cameron, on staying in the European Union. And in March 2017 the UK government officially notified the European Union of its departure, through the invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union.

Toponymy

The official name of the United Kingdom refers to the political union of the countries that make it up: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Although all four had been ruled by the same monarch many centuries before, the political union of the kingdoms was progressively realized. Wales was annexed to England by the Acts of Wales Act (1535–1542). With the rise of Scottish King James VI in 1603, Scotland and England (including Wales) formed a personal but not political union which would take place in 1707 with the Acts of the Union, thus forming the Kingdom of Scotland. Great Britain. The Act of 1800 politically united Ireland with the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1801, giving birth to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Upon the independence of the Republic of Ireland, in 1927 the official name of the Union was changed to the present-day United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The oldest known name of the British Isles comes from the writings of Ancient Greece. Although the original texts have been lost, some fragments were referred to or paraphrased by later authors. Some sections of the Periple Massaliota a book for merchants describing the sea routes of the 6th century BC were used in translation in the writings of Ruf Fest Aviè around 400 AD. Ierne (Insula sacra, the "sacred island", according to the Greek interpretation), was the number given to "Ireland", inhabited by the race of the "hiberni" (gens hiernorum); while insula Albionum, ("island of the

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