The ruble (in Russian рубле, transliterated ruble) is a monetary unit currently used in Belarus, Russia and part of Moldova (Transnistria), and historically also in several states and territories under the influence of Russia and the Soviet Union . It is divided into 100 kopecks.
The word «ruble»
According to one of the versions, the word "ruble" derives from the Russian verb рубить, rubit, which means "to cut". Historically, a ruble was a piece of a certain weight cut from a silver ingot called a grivna (hence the name of the hryvnia, the current currency of Ukraine). Another opinion that enjoys more acceptance is that the name would come from the Russian name рубец, rubets, 'wrinkle, scar', and in this case the edge that remains around the coin after the mint; therefore a ruble would be the piece out of a plate with an edge around it, that is, a coin.
It was the Russian equivalent of the marc, a measure of weight for silver and gold used in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The weight of a ruble was equal to that of a grivna.
As for the fractional currency, the kopeck (in Russian копейка, kopeika), its name comes from the noun копё, kopió, which means 'spear'. The first kopek coins, originating from the Novgorod and Pskov mints from 1535, reproduced a knight with a spear. From the 1540s the knight wears a crown, no doubt meant to represent Ivan the Terrible, Grand Prince of All the Russias until 1547 and Tsar from then on.
It should be noted that Russia was the first country in the world to introduce a decimal monetary system in 1704, with a ruble divided into 100 kopecks.
The plural in Russian
The Russian plurals that can be seen on today's currency vary according to Russian grammar. So the numbers 1, 21, 31, etc. are followed by the nominative singular рубле (rubl) and копейка (kopeika). The numbers 2 to 4, 22 to 24, 32 to 34, etc. they ask for the genitive singular рубля (ruble) and копейки (kopeiki). Finally, from 5 to 20, from 25 to 30, from 35 to 40, etc. are followed by the genitive plural рублей (rublei) and копеек (kopéiek).
The ruble in other languages
See also: Soviet ruble In several of the languages spoken in Russia and the former Soviet Union the name of the currency has no etymological relation to the word ruble. Especially in Turkic languages or those influenced by it, the ruble is often known (even officially) as som or sum (in the sense of 'pure'), or manat (from Russian moneta, 'coin' ).
Soviet banknotes specified their value in the languages of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union.
List of rubles
(This list is not exhaustive and does not contain all historical rubles, especially those issued by sub-national entities)
Armenian ruble or ruble (rouble)
Azerbaijani ruble (name by which the first Azerbaijani manat was known in Russian)
Georgian ruble (the Russian name for the Georgian maneti)
Latvian ruble or rubles
Ruble of Tuva (the name by which the akşa of Tuva was known in Russian)
Ukrainian ruble (the name by which the karbovanets of Ukraine were known in Russian)