Siege of Barcelona (1713-1714)

Article

January 21, 2022

El setge de Barcelona va ser una operació militar central dins de la Guerra dels catalans, darrer episodi hispànic de la Guerra de Successió Espanyola, entre el 25 de juliol de 1713 i l'11 de setembre de 1714. Tot i que Barcelona ja fou assetjada in this same war a few years before - Siege of Barcelona (1706) - involving troops of the great powers; during the Catalan War the foreign armies were evacuated and faced the defenders of Barcelona, ​​composed of the Colonel, the Catalan regular army, troops from the rest of the territories of the Crown of Aragon, and soldiers from other territories held by Charles III. It was initially proposed by the Duke of Popoli more as a blockade at all costs instead of a conventional siege. The entry into play of an army from the Kingdom of France, on July 13, to support the Spanish army with the change of military direction to the Duke of Berwick, more interested in taking the city than in destroying it. la, severely decanted the course of the siege, turning it into an assault on trenches and mines in the walls. Highly outnumbered and completely surrounded by Bourbon soldiers, the leaders of the garrison and the Catalan leaders chose the resistance until their deaths. The resistance offered in Barcelona and the other territories of the Crown of Aragon was used by Philip V of Spain to destroy the walls of the cities that had resisted the Bourbon advance, and to establish a harsh repression that went culminating in the burning of cities, such as Xàtiva, the repeal of laws and laws, and the imprisonment and death of many citizens, definitively establishing a state under the laws of the Crown of Castile. In 1716, with the Decrees of Nova Planta, the Spanish state was created with its capital in Madrid, in the style of the French absolutist and centralist state model. The execution of the defense in the battle of Barcelona will be used during the Renaissance as a symbol of the resistance of the people of Catalonia in defense of the country, and the referent has deserved the consideration of remembering its date as Diada National of Catalonia.

Background

The first half of the tumultuous and warlike eighteenth century in Europe was characterized by a complicated board of alliances and pacts needed to balance the balance of power of the states. Dynastic struggles and endless wars imposed hegemony, empires and new trade routes. The Kingdom of France, which since the Treaty of the Pyrenees had eclipsed the international power of the Hispanic kingdoms and the Kingdom of England and fought for dominion in the Western world. The eighteenth century begins with the childless death of Charles II the Enchanted. Two months before his death, under pressure from Louis XIV of France and some courtiers, he drafted his will in which he divided the Habsburg dominions, naming Prince Philip, grandson of Louis XIV, heir to the Hispanic kingdoms. This decision immediately provoked war between the European powers and unleashed a long civil war between the Hispanic kingdoms.

The War of the Spanish Succession (1705-1713)

The War of the Spanish Succession will be sustained directly by the coalition initially formed by the Kingdom of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain), the Republic of the United Provinces and the Holy Roman Empire united by their desire to prevent the hegemony of the Kingdom of England. France on the mainland, and side with the Austrian pretender, Archduke Charles. France, which had so successfully crowned its skilful political intrigues, sided with Philip V of Bourbon. The Kingdom of Castile will remain loyal to it and fight for the rightful king established by Charles II, but the Crown of Aragon will support the candidacy of Archduke Charles of Austria, who offered sincere guarantees of respect for the courts. years of the war were favorable to Archduke Charles. Accompanied by an English army and an es

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