May 19, 2022

Iraq (Arabic: العراق, IPA: ɪ.ˈɹɑ (ː) k), is the country of the Middle East or Middle East that occupies most of the northwestern part of the Zagros mountains and the eastern part of the Syrian desert. It is bordered by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the west, Syria to the northwest, Turkey to the north, and Iran to the east. It has the coast of Umm Qasr in the Persian Gulf. Iraq has two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. These rivers provided Iraq with the agricultural needs of those early civilizations (Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia). Iraq is a developing parliamentary democracy, with 18 governorates (muhafadhat). The capital city, Baghdad, is located in the center-east of the country. Iraq has a long history dating back to the time of Mesopotamia. Historians have identified the region between the Tigris and the Euphrates as the Fertile Crescent, a cradle of civilization, and the place where writing was invented. Iraq was formerly part of the Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, Parthian, Arab, Ottoman, and British empires. Since that invasion in 2003, multinational coalition forces, mostly Americans, have occupied Iraq. The invasion sparked and resulted in civil unrest, political breakdown, the remobal and execution of president Saddam Hussein, national problems in developing the balance of politics, economy, infrastructure, and the use of crude oil reserves. These issues have resulted in setbacks for Iraq, so that almost all the attention in the international community has focused on Iraq. According to the 2007 Failed States Index, compiled by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace’s Foreign Policy magazine and the Fund for Peace, Iraq is the second most troubled country (most unstable country) after Sudan.