May 20, 2022

Montenegro (Serbian Црна Гора, Montenegrin Crna Gora, Italian and other Western languages ​​Montenegro, the full name of the Republic of Montenegro until 22 October 2007) is a republic in south-eastern Europe on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, sovereign since 2006. It borders Croatia to the west , Bosnia and Herzegovina in the northwest, Serbia in the northeast, Kosovo in the east and Albania in the southeast. It has an area of ​​13,812 km2 and a population of about 620,000. Within Europe, it is one of the least populous and most sparsely populated countries. The capital of Montenegro is Podgorica, where (including the agglomeration) lives about 30% of the country's population. The historic capital is Cetinje, where the Montenegrin princes and one Montenegrin king once resided. The main ethnic group in the country are Montenegrins (about 45%). A large minority are Serbs, almost 30% of the population profess this nationality. Bosnians, Albanians and Croats are also important national minorities. The official language of the country is Montenegrin. About 72 percent of the population professes Orthodoxy, 19 percent to Islam. Montenegro has been a member of the North Atlantic Alliance since June 2017 and is a candidate country of the European Union. It is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.


Middle Ages

The territory of Montenegro was settled in the early days after the turn of the century by the Illyrians, who, however, were pushed south by the Slavs to present-day Albania. From the 10th century, the principality of Zeta existed here for several more centuries, until it was overthrown in the 15th century by the advancing Turks. Part of the Zeta population did not accept this and fled to inaccessible mountain areas, where they established an independent state called Montenegro. Isolation from the outside world thus protected the state from conquest, but on the other hand it hindered any social and technical progress. The society was divided into clans. The Montenegrins often had to repel the attacks of the Ottoman Turks, who, however, never completely controlled Montenegro. As a result, unlike the surrounding area (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina), they did not succumb to Islamization. In the 17th century, the Ottoman Sultan issued a charter in which - under Russian pressure - he confirmed the self-government of Montenegro. Subsequently, the Montenegrin assembly elected Bishop Danil Ščepčevič of the Petrovič-Njegoš family. This dynasty ruled in Montenegro until 1918, but its position was volatile until the middle of the 19th century and it had no real power. Be lords like Peter I. Petrovich or his successor Peter II. Petrovic was able to win some of the power, and the other, for example, began collecting taxes.


Until 1852, Orthodox metropolitans based in Cetina really ruled. This year, the country became a secular principality under the rule of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty. Danilo II became the first prince. After the Crimean War (1853–1856), the position of Russia and Prince Danilo II weakened. he was forced to submit more to the Ottomans again. At the same time, it forced France to start engaging in the Balkans. In the spring of 1858, the Ottomans sent a criminal military expedition to Montenegro, for the Montenegrins massively supporting the uprising in Herzegovina. However, the Montenegrins defeated the Turkish troops, thanks to French and Russian support, and despite British and Austrian aid to the Turks. After the death of Prince Danila (1860), Nikola Petrovič ascended the throne, trying to reach an anti-Ottoman coalition with Serbian Prince Michal Obrenović, who also ascended the throne. The Ottomans responded with a military expedition that penetrated as far as Cetinje, and Nikola had to ask the Russians and the French for mediation. Another crisis occurred in 1875, when another uprising broke out in Herzegovina. Prince Nikola took advantage of this and sent a request for independence to Montenegro to Istanbul. But the answer was just another Turkish