Red pyramid

Article

January 24, 2022

The Red Pyramid, or the North Pyramid, the Bat Pyramid, or incorrectly the Pink Pyramid, (Arabic هرم الوطواط, Haram el-vatvat) is a pyramid located in the necropolis of Shahur in Egypt. Its builder was Pharaoh Snofru (who ruled approximately between 2670 and 2620 BC), who also had the Lomena Pyramid and the Pyramid of Medúm built. Researchers do not agree on the exact date of construction. The Red Pyramid has the slowest pitch of the walls of all the Egyptian pyramids (43 °), which probably testifies to the builders' efforts to provide the best possible static security for the building. It is 99.4 meters high and the individual sides are 213 meters long. Upon completion, it became the highest pyramid in Egypt; it is now the third highest after the Pyramid of Khufu and Rachef. Its name comes from the reddish stone from which it is made. It was originally lined with white limestone from Tura. The Red Pyramid is the first Egyptian pyramid that was planned from the beginning as a real (non-stupid). For the first time, the Egyptians used the techniques needed to build these pyramids. As the only Egyptian pyramid, it has no underground corridors and rooms. Its above-ground chamber system consists of a descending corridor, two vestibules and a burial chamber, which was damaged by grave robbers. Although Egyptologists did not find a royal sarcophagus here, it is possible that Snofru was buried here. The Red Pyramid has been visited by European travelers since the Middle Ages. In 1750, the first pyramid survey was carried out using measuring instruments. The first detailed and modern researches took place here in 1839 under the leadership of the British Egyptologist John Shae Perring and in 1843 under the leadership of Karl Richard Lepsi. The most significant survey of the pyramid was carried out in 1982 by an expedition of German Egyptologists led by Rainer Stadelmann. The building has been accessible to tourists since 1997. The iconic Red Pyramid was apparently not built, nor was the ascending path. At the pyramid, researchers discovered the remains of a fence wall and a mortuary temple. The Valley Temple, according to Rainer Stadelmann, was located southeast of the pyramid near the village of Dahshur, where archaeologists have found the remains of a building measuring 100 meters by 65 meters. The pyramid itself was completed during Snofru's lifetime, but this is not the case with its pyramid complex, which was continued to be built after Pharaoh's death.

Name

The pyramid was named after the reddish color of the stone from which it is built. The locals call it Haram el-vatvat, which means "Bat Pyramid". The original Egyptian name of the Red Pyramid was probably "Snofru - front (pyramid)" appears in the glow, while its counterpart, the Angled Pyramid, was originally called "Snofru - south (pyramid)" appears in the glow. " Therefore, the Red Pyramid is also sometimes called the North or Front Pyramid.

Surveys

The Red Pyramid has been visited by European travelers since the Middle Ages. The chamber system of the pyramid was first described by the Italian traveler Pietro della Valle in the winter of 1615/1616. In 1660 it was visited by the Anglo-Dutch traveler Edward Melton and in the 18th century by the Czech Franciscan missionary Remedius Prutký. The first research of the pyramid using measuring instruments was carried out in 1750 by the British traveler and politician Robert Wood, the British antique dealer James Dawkins and the Italian architect Giovanni Battista Borra, but they were unable to enter its burial chamber because they lacked suitable ladders. carried out in 1839 under the leadership of the British Egyptologist John Shae Perring, and in 1843 under the leadership of Karl Richard Lepsi, who cataloged it in his list of pyramids under number XLIX (49) and created its detailed drawings. TO

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