October 23, 2021

The Czech Republic, the full name of the Czech Republic, is a country in Central Europe. It gained independence on January 1, 1993 as the successor state of Czechoslovakia, before which it existed as one of the two republics of the Czechoslovak federation. It also builds on more than a thousand years of history of Czech statehood and culture. According to its constitution, the Czech Republic is a parliamentary, democratic state governed by the rule of law with a liberal state regime and a political system based on the free competition of political parties and movements. The head of state is the President of the Republic, the supreme and only legislative body is the bicameral Parliament of the Czech Republic, the government of the Czech Republic is at the peak of executive power. The Czech Republic is a market economy country which, according to economic, social and political indicators such as GDP per capita, human development index, press freedom index or internet freedom index from censorship, belongs to the highly developed countries of the world. Economically, according to the World Bank, it belongs to the group of 31 richest countries in the world with the highest financial incomes. Compared to other countries, it has a very small proportion of the population living below the poverty line. It also shows relatively low inequality between the richest and poorest people and a relatively balanced redistribution of wealth across populations. The unemployment rate has been low for a long time and below the average of developed countries. In the ecological footprint index, the Czech Republic is a smaller ecological debtor compared to some other developed countries. According to the Global Peace Index, which is compiled annually by the Institute for Economics and Peace, the Czech Republic has long been one of the 15 safest countries (between 5th and 15th) in the world (the index takes into account the threat of war and the level of internal violent crime). Member of the European Union, North Atlantic Alliance, United Nations, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, European Customs Union, Schengen area, European Economic space, a member of the Visegrad Group and other international structures. The Czech Republic is a landlocked country with an area of ​​78,870 km2. It is bordered on the west by Germany (border length 810 km), on the north by Poland (762 km), on the east by Slovakia (252 km) and on the south by Austria (466 km). Administratively, it is divided into eight territorial and at the same time 14 self-governing regions. The capital is Prague, which is also one of the regions. In 2020, approximately 10.7 million people lived in the Czech Republic. The vast majority of the population declares itself to be of Czech or Moravian nationality.

Historical state formations in the Czech Republic

The Czech Republic continues the tradition of statehood of Great Moravia, [to clarify] dating back to the 9th century, the Czech principality, the Czech Kingdom, the Silesian principalities and the Silesian duchy, the Moravian margraviate, and Czechoslovakia. in the second half of the 9th century, the Great Moravian Empire was established. When it disappeared around 907 under the onslaught of nomadic Hungarian tribes, the focus of state development shifted to Bohemia. The local rulers of the Přemyslid dynasty built a medieval Přemyslid state, also called the Czech state (Czech principality, later the Czech Kingdom), from the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries forming part of the Holy Roman Empire. Since the time of Charles IV. (1348) also used the term land of the Czech Crown for the lands subject to the Czech king, which term also included the Moravian Margraviate and the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia. From 1526, the Czech lands were gradually integrated into the Habsburg monarchy, whose rulers took advantage of their victory.

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