1878

Article

August 14, 2022

1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a year that began on a Tuesday according to the Gregorian calendar.

Events

Czechia

January 18 – Architect Vilém Tierhier fell over the railing on the first floor during a scuffle with editor-in-chief J.S. Skrejšovský in the editorial office of the daily Politik and was seriously injured, which culminated in disputes in the Old Bohemian Party. April 7 – the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Workers' Party was founded in U Kaštanu inn in Břevnov May 15 – The monument to Josef Jungmann in Prague's Nové Město was unveiled and Franciscan Square was renamed Jungmann Square. 17-19 September – Regional elections in Bohemia December 22 – Ceremonial opening of the Palacký Bridge in Prague Start of production of the 310.0 series steam locomotive

World

5-9 January – Fourth Battle of the Šipka Pass on the Stare Plain between Russia and the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War January 9 – Umberto I becomes King of Italy February 7 – Pope Pius IX died. February 14 – the First Constitutional Era ends in the Ottoman Empire after less than 2 years, Sultan Abdulmecid II. declares himself absolute ruler again March 3rd Peace Treaty of San Stefano, establishment of the Principality of Bulgaria Leo XIII became the 256th Pope in the history of the Roman Catholic Church March 11 - Obaysch, the first hippopotamus in Europe in modern times, died at London Zoo. May 1 - October 31 - World Exhibition in Paris June 4 - The island of Cyprus comes under British rule June 13 – July 13 – Congress of Berlin and Treaty of Berlin, independence of Serbia, Montenegro and Romania June 15 – Finnish-Swedish cartographer and traveler Adolf Erik Nordenskjöld embarks on the first successful voyage of the Vega Expedition between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans along the shores of Siberia. 4-6 September – Battle of Doboje in Bosnia with the participation of two Moravian infantry regiments September 12 - Cleopatra's obelisk was erected in London

Ongoing Events

1875–1878 – Great Eastern Crisis 1876–1878 – The First Constitutional Era 1877–1878 – Russo-Turkish War

Sciences and Arts

February 19 - Thomas Alva Edison patented the phonograph. November 10 - Premiere of Alexsandar Ostrovsky's play The Bride Without a Dowry (Bespridannitsa) in Moscow In the state of Colorado (USA), paleontologist Edward D. Cope discovered a gigantic sauropod dinosaur vertebra, which was named Amphicoelias. The 2.7 meter tall vertebra has been lost, leaving the size of this possibly the largest animal of all time open to speculation. Skeletons of 38 dinosaurs of the genus Iguanodon and other prehistoric animals were found in a coal mine in Bernissart, Belgium. Based on these findings, the new species Iguanodon bernissartensis was determined. The chemical elements holmium and ytterbium were discovered. in Locport, USA, the first steam heating plant with remote distribution of steam for heating was put into operation Portuguese scientist Adriano de Paiva proposed the gradual transfer of individual image points. David Edward Hughes invented the perfect carbon microphone that made long-distance telephone connections possible. The first telephone network was established in the American city of New Haven. Swedish engineer Gustaf de Laval perfected the use of a centrifuge to separate cream from milk and to purify milk. The Jewish poet Naftali Herz Imber wrote the text of the later Israeli anthem.

Books

Jakub Arbes – Acrobats Henry James - Daisy Miller Jan Neruda - Cosmic Songs Jules Verne - History of Great Discoveries Jules Verne - The Fifteen-Year-Old Captain

Birth

For an automatic alphabetically ordered list, see Category:Births 1878

Czechia

January 1 – József Törköly, Czechoslovak politician of Hungarian nationality († April 14, 1938) 02 January Alois Wierer, painter and graphic artist († 1945) Antonín Profous, an expert on it