Afghanistan (Pashto: افغانستان), the full name of which is the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country ruled by the internationally unrecognized government of the Taliban. It lies on the border of Central and South Asia. In the north it borders Uzbekistan (137 km) and Tajikistan (1206 km), in the northeast with China (76 km), in the east with Pakistan (the so-called Durand line, 2430 km), in the west with Iran (936 km) and in the northwest with Turkmenistan (744 km). The capital is Kabul. In July and August 2021, the territory of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was controlled by the radical Islamist movement Taliban, which, after achieving significant territorial gains, announced on August 19, 2021 the creation of a new state unit - the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, which did not receive international recognition by other states. The last focus of anti-Taliban resistance, Panjshir province, where the National Resistance Front operates, was captured by the Taliban in early September 2021.
Antiquity and Middle Ages
"Tent" means earth. Afghanistan means the land of Afghans. The term "stan" is also used in the names of Kurdistan, Tajikistan, Kohistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Baluchistan, Uzbekistan and others.
Present-day Afghanistan was part of Media in the 8th century BC, and from the 6th century BC a peripheral part of the Achaemenid Empire (in the west of present-day Afghanistan and their vassal territories in the east). Alexander the Great conquered this area of the Persian Empire in 330 BC and his successors established the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom here. In the 3rd century, the empire of the Kushans spread here, in the 6th century the empire of the Hephthalites. From the 7th century AD, the territory of Afghanistan was gradually annexed to the territory of the Arab Empire. In the 13th century, the Mongols led by Genghis Khan contributed to the depopulation of Afghanistan after invading the Khorezm Empire and destroying the irrigation system and many cities such as Balkh and Herat. At the end of the 14th century, the territory of Afghanistan became part of the Tamerlane empire and a little later the Mughal empire. In the 18th century, the territory of Afghanistan was controlled by the Persian conqueror Nadir Shah.
Modern Afghan State (1746–1973)
The modern Afghan state was established in 1746 under the name Durran Empire. The historical rulers of Afghanistan belonged to the Abdali tribe, whose name was changed to Durrani after the accession of Ahmad Shah. Ahmad Shah's army occupied part of northern India and defeated the Hindu Maratha army in the Battle of Panipat in 1761. During the First Anglo-Afghan War of 1842, almost the entire British invasion army was destroyed during the retreat from Afghanistan. At the end of the 19th century, Afghanistan became a "buffer state" in the Russo-British Great Game. At that time, the Afghan ruler Abdurrahman Khan conquered Nuristan, whose inhabitants were forced to accept Islam, as well as the territory of the Shiite Khazars. During the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, Afghanistan asserted its independence and gained international recognition. Slavery was abolished in 1923. The Afghan kingdom was geographically and ethnically diverse. His statehood lacked historical roots. There lived ten nations that did not keep in touch with each other and looked down on each other. Pashtuns were considered to be the real and true Afghans. About twenty languages were used for people's communication. Numerous nomads lived outside the control and supervision of the state, did not pay taxes and did not serve in the army. Strict Islamic rules dictated that women stay away from the house. If they appeared in public, it was only in a burqa, covering the female body and face. In 1955, Soviet representative N.S. Khrushchev visited Kabul, which started the era of Soviet aid to Afghanistan. From 1963, the United States began to compete with them. In 1970–1971