Anglo-Saxons is a collective name commonly used to describe culturally and linguistically related Germanic tribes living in the south and east of the island of Great Britain from about the middle of the 5th century until the Norman conquest of the country in 1066. Anglo-Saxons spoke Germanic dialects and Germanic tribes, English and Saxons originating from present-day northern Germany, and Jutes from present-day Denmark.
The Anglo-Saxons have been famous for conquering the former Roman province of Britain since the 5th century. It was inhabited by Romanized Celtic Britons (Britons), who, according to myths, were led against the conquerors by King Arthur. The Anglo-Saxons maintained their privileged position in conquered England until 1066, when the last crowned Anglo-Saxon king Harold II was killed. Godwinson by the Duke of Normandy William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings.
Saxons, English and Jute
According to legend, the Anglo-Saxons came in large numbers for the first time in present-day England around 450 at the request of British Chief Vortigern to help him against the Picts. The Anglo-Saxons were great warriors, so they gradually conquered the territories in the south, east and center of Britain, where they established their kingdoms. They also fought extensively among themselves, but only the Cerdik dynasty succeeded in uniting the seven kingdoms in the 9th century to create a medieval united England.
One of the first known Anglo-Saxon kings in Britain was Jutland leader Hengest, who founded the Kingdom of Kent around 455. He cunningly neutralized the British envoys (Long Knives Night) at Stonehenge, who had come to negotiate peace.
Another Anglo-Saxon king Cerdic sailed from the continent to Britain around 494 and allegedly founded the kingdom of Wessex in 519. He was the founder of the Cerdikov family, which ruled in England until 1066 and of which Alfred the Great was a member.
St. The Guild (died 570) first introduced Christianity among the Anglo-Saxons. De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae also discusses this period.
The Angel King of Northumbria Æthelfrith defeated the Welshmen between 613 and 616 in the (Battle of Chester). His rival was the East English king Rædwald. King Rædwald eventually defeated King Æthelfrith (617) and allowed a Northumbrian pretender from a competitive dynastic line to take the throne. King Edwin was killed in the Battle of 632, he was also a supporter of Christianity. King Rædwald, King of East Anglia, is probably buried at Sutton Hoo in a wooden nave - as recently confirmed by archaeological research - according to him, the Anglo-Saxons were at the same level of craftsmanship as the Romans at the time of their peak development.
England in the early Middle Ages consisted of the so-called heptarchy - seven kingdoms situated in the south, southeast and center of England. The kingdoms were created by England: Northumbria, Mercia, East of England; Juty Kent; Sasy Essex, Sussex and Wessex. From this time, the present names of the counties of Sussex (South Saxons), Essex (East Saxons), Middlessex (Middle Saxons), and also Wessex (West Saxons) come from England. E.g. The English name for Wales is derived from the Germanic term for foreigners.
These kingdoms were gradually united by the kings of Wessex, Egbert and Alfred the Great, in the 9th century. The seven kingdoms have turned into counties, and to this day this administrative system has been preserved to some extent. They created fortified cities on the borders and were able to effectively defend against the invasions of the Celts and especially the Vikings, who created their territory in the east of England (Danelaw). The kingdom did not fall until the Norman invasion of 1066 - the Battle of Hastings.
Migration of nations
The Seven Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms
Pictures, sounds or videos about Anglo-Saxons on Wikimedia Commons
Anglo-Saxons, Via Historia, viah.wargaming.cz