Basilica of St. Peter and Paul

Article

January 24, 2022

The Basilica of St. Peter and Paul in Prague at Vyšehrad is an important religious and cultural monument; A collegiate chapter was established at the church at the time of its founding in 1070. The church, originally an early Romanesque basilica, has been rebuilt repeatedly throughout history, markedly Gothic in the time of Charles IV. and High Baroque at the beginning of the 18th century. Today's appearance is the result of a radical neo-Gothic reconstruction of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since 2003, the chapter church has had the title of basilica minor. The Vyšehrad cemetery near the church was transformed into a national burial ground in the 19th century.

History

The local church was founded by the Czech King Wroclaw II. in the years 1070–1080, this happened in connection with the founding of the Vyšehrad Chapter. At that time it was a three-nave basilica built in the Romanesque style. It was first rebuilt and enlarged in 1129 during the reign of Prince Soběslav I. In 1249, the building was severely damaged by fire, and was later restored in Gothic style. In 1369, during the reign of Emperor Charles IV. In the years 1576 to 1576 the church was rebuilt, this time in the Renaissance style, in the years 1707-1729 there was another reconstruction of the Baroque. design by František Mikš in the years 1902–1903. In addition to its unusual Art Nouveau interior decoration, the church also received its two characteristic, 58-meter-high towers, which today form one of the prominent landmarks of the capital city of Prague. In the years 1981–1987, the church was generally reconstructed and repaired, and an archaeological survey was carried out there. In 2003, the church was elevated by Pope John Paul II. to the basilica minor.

Description

In its present form, the church is a neo-Gothic three-nave pseudo-basilica with a monumental western twin towers, which form the dominant feature of Vyšehrad and complete one of the characteristic panoramas of Prague, the counterweight of Prague Castle [source?]. The western façade with three cathedral portals is decorated with provincial and chapter emblems, relief in tympanums and modern mosaics with motifs α and ω by Lumír Šindelář. Inside there is a cross-vaulted triple nave with shallow side chapels, on the west with a vestibule and on the first floor with a music porch, on the east a presbytery lined on the left by the sacristy and on the right by the chapel of the Virgin Mary of Šancov. The church interior is richly decorated. Gothic wall frescoes have been preserved in torsion, the best preserved are St. Mary with Jesus and St. George in the chapel of St. Josef on the right at the entrance to the chapel of P. Marie Šancovská. Above the entrance to the sacristy is a modified Baroque painting with a period idea of ​​the original form of the church and the legend of the so-called Devil's Column (today in Karlachovy sady). Baroque, originally altar paintings from the workshop or circuit of Karel Škréta are now in the side chapels. The cycle of wall paintings by the Viennese painter Karel Jobst, the legend of St. Peter and Paul in the presbytery and Jesus Christ in the nave, or stained glass in the windows - in the presbytery figures of saints designed by František Sequens.

Cemetery

Since the Middle Ages, there have been four cemeteries in Vyšehrad - at the Rotunda of St. Martin, at the Basilica of St. Lawrence, at the Church of the Baptism of St. John the Baptist and at the Basilica of St. Peter and Paul, which has served the longest. It was not abolished during the Josephine reforms, because it was far enough from the city (over 500 steps) and thus received a special permit by decree of the office in 1785. [source?] The cemetery was divided into several parts. Priests, nuns and senior clerics were buried in the western part in nine separate sections. Later, school and hospital nurses found their last rest here. This part at the entrance to the

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