October 25, 2021
Covid-19 (also called COVID-19; coronavirus disease 2019, which means coronavirus disease 2019; pronunciation: [kovid nineteen]; according to ICD-11 designated XN109) is a highly infectious disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV- 2. The first case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Since then, the virus has spread around the world, causing a persistent pandemic. Symptoms of covid-19 range from asymptomatic to severe, but often include fever, cough, fatigue, difficulty breathing, and loss of smell and taste. Symptoms begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. Approximately one in five infected individuals will show no symptoms. While most people have mild symptoms, some people develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. This syndrome can be caused by cytokine storms, multi-organ failure, septic shock, and blood clots. Longer-term damage to organs (especially the lungs and heart) has been observed. There are concerns about a significant number of patients who have recovered from the acute phase of the disease, but continue to experience a number of consequences - known as long-term covid-19 - even a few months later. These effects include severe fatigue, memory loss and other cognitive problems, mild fever, muscle weakness and shortness of breath. The virus that causes covid-19 is spread mainly by airborne transmission when an infected person is in close contact with another person. Small droplets and aerosols containing the virus can spread from the nose and mouth of an infected person when breathing, coughing, sneezing, singing or speaking. Other people can become infected if the virus gets into their mouths, noses or eyes. The virus can also spread through a contaminated surface, although this is not considered to be the main route of transmission. The exact route of transmission is seldom convincingly proven, but infection occurs mainly when people are close enough to each other. The virus can spread for up to two days before infected people show symptoms and from individuals who never experience symptoms. People remain infectious for up to ten days in moderate cases and two weeks in severe cases. The virus spreads more easily indoors and in the crowd. Various test methods have been developed to diagnose the disease. The standard diagnostic method is a real-time reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (PCR test) by nasopharyngeal swabs. Preventive measures include physical or social separation, quarantine endangered people, ventilation of the interior, covering the mouth and nose with a cough and sneeze, washing hands and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. To minimize the risk of transmission, the use of drapes, face masks, or other airway masks has been recommended in public. Several vaccines against covid-19 have been developed, after which most countries around the world have launched vaccination campaigns and the vaccination itself, the extent of which, however, depends on the availability of a sufficient number of vaccines. Although work is underway to develop drugs that slow and stop the virus, primary treatment is currently symptomatic. Includes symptom treatment, supportive care, isolation, and some experimental measures.