World War II


December 3, 2021

World War II was a global military conflict in 1939-1945, in which most countries in the world took part. With more than 62 million casualties, the conflict has become the largest and most devastating war in human history. Soon after the occupation of the rest of Czechoslovakia on March 15, 1939, war broke out in Europe. It began on September 1, 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. Shortly afterwards, France, the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth states declared war on Germany. On September 17, Poland and the Soviet Union (USSR) invaded Poland. The German invasion of Poland was preceded by his non-aggression pact with the USSR, the so-called Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, signed on August 24, 1939. In a secret protocol to the pact, the two states temporarily divided spheres of influence. As a result, there was de facto room for military expansion on both sides. The Blitzkrieg in Western Europe began on May 10, 1940, when the German Wehrmacht, at the behest of Adolf Hitler, crossed the borders of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, and then bypassed the defensive Maginot Line. After a quick defeat of the French army, German troops entered Paris on June 14. France surrendered on June 22, 1940, and Hitler's troops gradually occupied the country. The Soviet Union became one of the Allies of World War II against the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis after Hitler's Germany launched a large-scale and destructive Operation Barbarossa on June 22, 1941. At first, the Red Army had to retreat to Moscow. After fierce fighting, such as the Battle of Stalingrad (Autumn 1942 - Winter 1943), Soviet troops began to push the Wehrmacht westward and conquered Berlin on May 2, 1945. On July 7, 1937, an incident occurred on the Marco Polo Bridge in Beijing. This relatively small military conflict de facto created the Second Sino-Japanese War, initially without a formal state of war between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China. Japan then continued its large-scale expansion against Chinese territories, then invaded and conquered a number of countries in Southeast Asia. On December 7, 1941, aircraft from Japanese aircraft carriers attacked the US naval base Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands. The next day, the United States entered the war against Japan. It was not until December 9, 1941, that the Chinese government officially declared war on Japan. On December 11, 1941, Nazi Germany and Italy declared war on the United States, consolidating a state of global conflict. The end of the war in Europe came on May 8, 1945 with the unconditional surrender of Germany. After the American dropping of atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan capitulated on September 2, 1945. The causes of war are often sought in the consequences of ideologies and political directions, such as nationalism and imperialism. According to some historians, one of the main reasons was the dissatisfaction of Germany's ruling circles with the effects of the Treaty of Versailles, which was supposed to deepen the feeling of humiliation after losing World War I and the aftermath of the great economic crisis at the turn of the 1920s and 1930s. These influences have fundamentally weakened many European states, enabling the rise of Nazism, Italian fascism and Soviet communism. World War II was accompanied to an unprecedented degree by war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the inhumane treatment of prisoners of war, especially by Soviet soldiers from Germany. The civilian population, which suffered huge losses, was also significantly affected during the fighting. The worst example of genocide was the Holocaust, which killed six million Jews in concentration camps and elsewhere in many European countries on the basis of Nazi racial ideology. The Chinese massacre committed by the Japanese in Nanjing on December 19

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