Dubrovnik (Dubrovnik in Croatian, Ragusa in Latin and Italian) is a Croatian port city located in southern Dalmatia. In 2011, 28,434 inhabitants lived in Dubrovnik, 42,615 inhabitants in the entire municipality, in 2001, according to the Croatian census, 43,770 people lived here, and in 1991, there were 49,728 inhabitants. The absolute majority of the population consists of 88.39% Croats. It is one of the most important tourist centers of the Adriatic coast and Croatia. It is also referred to as the "Pearl of the Adriatic". The city of Dubrovnik has always prospered from maritime trade. In the Middle Ages, it was the center of the Republic of Dubrovnik, a maritime republic that competed with similar state formations on the Adriatic coast.
Dubrovnik and its surroundings (almost the entire Dubrovnik-Neretva County) is an exclave of Croatia (as well as the European Union), which is separated from the rest of Croatia by a short stretch of coast belonging to Bosnia and Herzegovina (with the resort of Neum).
The patron saint of the city is Saint Blaise.
The name Dubrovnik is of Slavic origin and with Italian or the Latin name Ragusa coexisted for several centuries. The Latin name appeared in various forms already in the 10th century. The official name of the Republic of Dubrovnik was in Latin, or Italian until 1808 Republica Ragusina.
The Slavic name Dubrovnik first appeared in the 12th century, it spread widely at the turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in connection with the arrival of a larger number of Slavic population to the city. The first mention of the name Dubrovnik comes from the document Povelja Kulina Bana and, as with many Czech names, it refers to the word doubrava, meaning forest. It can also be found in a number of other toponyms in Slavic countries, e.g. in Poland (Dąbrowa), etc.
Latin or the Italian name Ragusa is of much older origin and comes from the ancient Greek Ῥαούσιν. In Latin, or Dalmatian was adopted in the 10th century. In the Middle Ages it appeared in various transcriptions (Rausia, Lavusa, Labusa, Raugia, Rachusa). The origin of the Greek toponym has been studied, however several assumptions have been reached rather than a clear conclusion. The name may refer to the Greek word ῥαγός (vine), or ῥωγός (narrow passage), ῥωγάς (rocks), etc. It may also refer to an Illyrian tribe that lived in the area of today's Epirus. According to another theory, it refers to the original settlement from which the inhabitants fled to the place of today's Dubrovnik before the invasions of the Slavs in the 7th century.
In addition to the two mentioned, other names were used for the city of Dubrovnik in the Middle Ages, which later disappeared, namely: Labusedum, Epidaurus or Pitaura.
Dubrovnik is located in the southernmost part of Croatia. Of the tourist-attractive Croatian cities further south, only Cavtat is located. It is separated from dry Herzegovina, which is located further inland, by peaks several hundred meters high that rise directly from the sea. The border with Bosnia and Herzegovina is located approx. 5 km northeast of the city and roughly follows the shape of the coast.
The city is located 390 km southeast of Zagreb, 165 km southeast of Split, 135 km south of Sarajevo, 98 km west of Podgorica in Montenegro and 42 km northwest of Herceg Novi. Across the Adriatic Sea, it is 197 km from the Italian port of Bari. Dubrovnik is roughly as far south as the Italian city of Pescara or the capital of Kosovo, Pristina.
Among the Croatian resorts on the shores of the Adriatic Sea, Dubrovnik stands out in that it is not surrounded by any larger islands in the sea. The only two exceptions are the small islets of Koločep (in the Elaphite Islands archipelago) west of the town of Lokrum, south of Dubrovnik.
The city is characterized by a transitional climate between humid subtropical and middle