The European Commission is a supranational body of the European Union, independent of the Member States and defending the interests of the Union. The term is used in two senses: either as a college of commissioners or as a college with the entire administrative apparatus, which has up to 32,000 employees. It participates in almost all levels of decision-making, it has the largest administrative and expert apparatus. It is divided into a number of directorates-general and services; since 1999, the European Commission has had 33 directorates-general. It is headquartered in Brussels, its central building is the Berlaymont Palace, several headquarters are located in the Tour Madou Plaza, some parts of which are located in Luxembourg.
The Commission is, above all, the 'guardian of the Treaties' - ensuring that the founding treaties of the European Union are complied with and of its own motion bringing actions in the event of a breach. Participation in the drafting of legislation is an important power; the Commission has the right to submit legislative proposals. Other powers are to issue recommendations and opinions, and the Commission also exercises delegated powers (delegated legislative power). The Commission participates in the European Union's external negotiations, [source?], Including maintaining diplomatic relations and negotiating international agreements. It mainly manages the budget of the European Union.
The College of 27 Commissioners meets once a week.
Composition, provisions and responsibilities of parliament
The Commission (College of Commissioners) is composed of Commissioners. The Commissioners come from the Member States and are nominated by them. They are completely independent - they must not take instructions from their country of origin or from any other state, and they are obliged to promote the interests of the Union alone. The Commission also has eight Vice-Presidents (including three Executive Vice-Presidents). The other members (Commissioners) are appointed jointly by the Council of the European Union and the President of the European Commission, who assigns departments to the Commissioners. .
The Commission is accountable to Parliament. Members of the European Parliament have the right to interpellate the Commissioner and the President of the Commission, and interpellants are obliged to reply in writing or in person, as a rule every Tuesday. The Commission must report regularly to Parliament on its activities. The only way in which the commission can be dismissed is by a two-thirds majority of its component of the European Parliament.
Number of Commissioners
The number of Commissioners has undergone several changes since 2004:
Before the accession of ten new member states, the European Commission had 20 commissioners: the five largest states (France, Italy, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom) had two commissioners in the EC, the remaining 10 member states of the European Union one each.
Following the accession of the new Member States on 1 May 2004, the number of Commissioners increased to 30 (one Commissioner from each new Member State was added).
On November 18, 2004, when the new European Commission took office, the number of commissioners was reduced to 25 - each member state has only one commissioner.
From 1 January 2007 to 30 June 2013, the Commission had a total of 27 members (following the accession of Bulgaria and Romania).
As of 1 July 2013, the Commission had 28 Commissioners (following the accession of Croatia).
Following Brexit on 31 January 2020, it has 27 Commissioners. Note: