October 18, 2021

The Philippines, the full name of the Republic of the Philippines, is an island nation in Southeast Asia, whose capital is Manila. They are located on 7,641 islands in the western Pacific Ocean. They do not share a land border with any state. The Straits separates them from Taiwan in the north, from Malaysia (Sabah) in the southwest and Indonesia (Sulawesi) in the south. The Philippines is the twelfth most populous country in the world with a population of 104 million (2017). The Philippine economy is the 47th largest in the world and its gross domestic product (GDP) in 2017 was nominally 313 billion US dollars. According to the latest analyzes, the Philippines is to skip a number of developed countries, including the Czech Republic, by 2050 and move to 16th place in the size of the economy. It is estimated that 11 million Filipinos live worldwide outside the Philippines. The Philippines is the oldest democracy in the region of Southeast Asia. Formerly a Spanish and later an American colony (then an autonomous territory) is one of the two predominantly Catholic countries in Asia - about 81% of the population (the other is East Timor). About 10% of the population professes other Christian churches, and there are also a number of minority religious groups professing Islam (about 5%), Buddhism, Hinduism and other faiths. Numerous ethnicities and cultures can be found on the Philippine islands.


Evidence of the presence of an upright man in the Philippines is 700,000 years old. The arrival of people speaking Australian languages ​​is expected around 4000 BC Around 100 BC, a considerable stratification of society is already evident. The coastal tribes, using traditional balangay boats, were the most dynamic and conveyed cultural innovations. Between 4 and 8 For centuries, they established contact with the Malay Peninsula and East Asia. The area on the Malay Peninsula was then under strong Indian cultural influence, and from there Buddhism and Hinduism spread to the Philippines. The first script, kawi, probably came to the Philippines from the Malay Peninsula. Before the arrival of Europeans, however, no major centralized state was created. The most important state units were the kingdoms of Maynila and Tondo, the Sultanate of Sulu and the confederation of Madyaas. They were led by local leaders, the Rajas (the village leaders were called dato). In the 15th century, Islam began to spread mainly from Brunei to the south of the islands (Sulu Islands, Mindanao).

Spanish domination

In 1521, on his journey around the world, he discovered the islands of Fernão de Magalhães (Portuguese commander in Spanish service). Although, thanks to the Treaty of Zaragoza in 1529, the territory belonged to the sphere of influence of Portugal, King Philip II of Spain left. colonize this archipelago and definitely acquired it for Spain, and it was named after him after the name Philippines. In 1565, the Philippines became the Spanish colony of the Spanish East Indies (along with the Mariana Islands and the Carolinas). In 1571, the Spanish fully controlled the islands (only the predominantly Muslim Mindanao was never fully controlled by the Spaniards) and founded the city of Manila, now the capital. Spanish colonization was also marked by a strong Christianization effort. Christianity did not encounter any significant resistance, probably due to religious inhomogeneity before colonization. The Spaniards of Manila also served as a base for trade with China and Japan. The Dutch tried to conquer the Philippines in 1646, but without success. The British attempt of 1762 was already more successful, Manila was occupied by the British for two years, but the agreements of both countries returned it to Spanish hands. However, the Spaniards themselves often rated the colonization of the Philippines as a failure, the colony was non-profit. It was not until the second half of the 19th century that the generous construction of the railway began, and in 1851 the first was founded

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