French Revolutionary War

Article

January 24, 2022

The French Revolutionary War was a series of wars between 1792 and 1802 during the Great French Revolution between Revolutionary France and neighboring European powers.

Background

In May 1789, representatives of the three states (aristocracy, clergy, and bourgeoisie) were convened in Versailles by King Louis XVI of France to approve new taxes. The reason for the National Assembly was the country's poor economic situation. When the church and the nobility did not agree to the introduction of taxes (against each other), the king tried to dissolve the National Assembly (or rather forcibly disperse), the third state - the bourgeoisie - revolted on July 14 and conquered the Bastille, a royal prison and a symbol of state power. This began the Great French Revolution, which soon spread throughout the country. On July 16, Louis XVI had to adopt a revolutionary tricolor in national colors (blue-white-red). On August 8, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was proclaimed and a constitutional monarchy was proclaimed. European rulers were against the revolution, and therefore on February 7, 1792, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, who was the brother of Queen Marie Antoinette of France, and King Frederick William II of Prussia. created a pact against France.

First Coalition War (1792–1797)

On April 20, 1792, under the pressure of the Legislative Assembly of Prussia and Austria, Louis XVI declared war and the French army invaded the Austrian Netherlands, but in the first battles the French were defeated and the Prussian-Austrian corps commanded by the Duke of Brunswick began to threaten Paris. Nevertheless, in the ensuing battle of Valma on September 20, the Prussians lost, and although it was a rather insignificant skirmish, it lifted the spirit of the revolutionary troops and the French went on the offensive and soon entered Belgium and the Netherlands. On October 21, Mainz was attacked and the French established a republic in this city. On January 21, 1793, King Louis XVI was executed under a guillotine. The execution of the king caused the German and Italian states, Spain and Great Britain to join the coalition. And General Dumoriez's betrayal caused the coalition to gain the Austrian Netherlands and royalist uprisings to break out in the country. A general mobilization has been announced. The fugitive officers were replaced by new ones, and those capable could easily become soldiers or non-commissioned officers generals (eg Hoche, Jourdan or Napoleon Bonaparte). At the end of 1793, the situation changed and France went on the offensive again. The Netherlands became a sister Batavian Republic. In 1795, Prussia and other states made peace with France. Only Austria and Great Britain now fought against France. At this time, General Napoleon Bonaparte was given command of an army of 40,000 poorly trained men. In 1796, the Italian expedition began and Bonaparte was to bind the Austrians in northern Italy. He soon occupied most of northern Italy and headed for Vienna after the Battle of Arcola. In 1797, peace was made in Campo Formio and most of Italy was transformed into a number of sister republics of France.

Rebellion of Irish Unity (1798)

In 1782, the Irish Parliament gained power, but the Irish still wanted full independence. Irish unity was an organization whose leader Wolfe Tone decided to provoke a nationwide uprising and overthrow English rule; they decided to gain the support of France. In 1798, Tone sailed under the name Smith to France, from where they sent 43 ships with him to land in Bantry Bay, but the bad wind drove his ships back. In the meantime, an uprising broke out in May 1798, but it was not national and soon suffered defeat in most places. Only in Wexford did the rebel leadership, Priest John Murphy, succeed at first. The situation changed for them in June, when the British conquered Vinegar Hill, which was in the hands of the rebels, captured John Murphy and later executed in a brutal manner. In August, landed in I

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