Franjo Tudjman

Article

May 28, 2022

Franjo Tuđman (also spelled Tudjman, pronounced [tudžman]; May 14, 1922 Veliko Trgovišće - December 10, 1999 Zagreb) was a Croatian politician, the first president of independent Croatia and a prominent member (founder) of the HDZ, a historian and a Yugoslav general.

Biography

Tuđman was born in Veliky Trgovišće, Záhoří, Croatia. His father Stjepan was an activist of the Croatian Peasant Party; in addition to Franja, he had two sons, Stjepan and Ivica. Their mother died in 1929, when Franjo was still in primary school. Brother Stjepan died in 1943 among the guerrillas. Although Franja's father Stjepan was one of the main initiators of the anti-fascist movement in Záhoří, Croatia, and was also a member of ZAVNOH and AVNOJ, in 1946 he was liquidated by the Yugoslav secret police UDBA. Franjo attended high school in Zagreb from 1934 to 1941. Even then, he took part in the nationalist Croatian movement, and the then royal regime therefore interned him. From 1941, Franjo Tuđman joined the Yugoslav guerrillas. In 1945, he became one of the Croatian representatives in the highest staff of the guerrilla army in Belgrade. He worked in the main personnel administration of the Ministry of People's Defense, in the JLA General Staff and in the Directorate of the Military Encyclopedia. From 1955 to 1957 he studied at the Higher Military Academy in Belgrade. In 1960, he received the rank of Major General. He gave up military activities because he wanted to focus mainly on literary work. He then returned to Zagreb and began working at a local university. Tuđman drew attention to himself in 1990 with the publication of a book in which he disputed the official Yugoslav historiography regarding the number of victims in the Jasenovac Concentration Camp. In it, the NDH regarded as the executor of the brutality of history; as a state that has repeated what many have tried in history. He considered the high numbers of victims an exaggeration, both on the part of Serbian historians and Croatian communists. , at the end of the existence of the Yugoslav state, he became the chairman of the Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Croatia. He was elected Croatian president in the spring of 1990. In June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which was suspended by the Brion Declaration until October 1991. In the meantime, disputes over the status of a large Serbian minority began. Patriotic wars. Tuđman engaged Croatia in the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, already in March 1991 in the former Tito's hunting lodge in Karađorđev in Vojvodina Despite many accusations, especially by the Serbian media and Serbian politicians, Tuđman never openly supported the Ustasha movement and its revival in the 1990s. However, Tuđman himself considered the independent state of Croatia to be an expression of the "legitimate aspirations of the Croatian nation." Tuđman was and is glorified by nationalist groups in Croatia. sings as if in the genre of prayer "Gospe sinjska, as you stand by, Uzmi Stipu, and return to us Franja." and former NDH leader Ante Pavelić.) The transformation of Croatia into a market economy was marked by the growth of st